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Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

; Smith, 2014] . Likewise, French, Portuguese and South Africa interference in the conflict was undertaken with the goal of destabilising Nigeria and weakening its influence in West Africa [ Omaka, 2019 ; Siebert, 2018] . The third element of this story is the on-going transition from empire to the postcolonial era. That change manifested itself in different ways. The Africanisation of the Nigerian Catholic Church, for example, changed the role that expatriate missionaries

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Adrian Millar

had someone close to them killed or injured in the conflict. 1 These statistics provide us with some indication of the experience of pain of the republican community. The authors also remark that the pain of the wider Catholic church-going community is greater than that of the Protestant church-going population: ‘Among churchgoers, Catholics are three times more likely to have been intimidated and

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Abstract only
Adrian Millar

), Social Attitudes in Northern Ireland: The Fourth Report 1994–1995 (Belfast: The Appletree Press Ltd, 1995), p. 30). 5 This conclusion is in keeping with the views of Mary Harris, The Catholic Church and the Foundation of the Northern State (Cork: Cork University Press, 1993), p. 16. Harris

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Abstract only
Mary McAleese

reached its summit in 1994 when she became Pro-Vice-Chancellor at Queen’s University, and the first woman to serve in that role. Her academic career did not, however, shut out involvement in public affairs. In 1984, she was a member of the Catholic Church Episcopal Delegation to the New Ireland Forum, set up under the premiership of Dr Garret Fitzgerald (qv). In 1996, in the wake of the widespread disturbances which had broken out over parading, the British government set up the Independent Review of Parades and Marches chaired by Dr (later Sir) Peter North. Here, too

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Adrian Millar

attitudes or roundly criticise the Roman Catholic Church and on occasions people at large appear to embrace untheological values. The IRA and loyalist paramilitaries do not target religious personnel. Catholic churches have remained relatively inviolate. National preferences are autonomous of religious beliefs. People in Northern Ireland made it clear in a

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Adrian Millar

. Interviewee 12 views Protestant bigotry in terms of Protestants’ fear of Catholicism as a faith and a religious system (for ‘theological, tribal and all sorts of reasons’) whereas he claims that Catholics are not afraid of the Protestant faith or religious system. Protestants are paranoid about ‘Fenianism’ – a conglomeration of Sinn Fein, the SDLP, the Catholic Church, the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Iver B. Neumann

institution of apocrisiarii , whereby some representative of the Catholic Church was resident in Byzantium. The first permanent, reciprocal and so fully-fledged example of this institution, which came to be known precisely as permanent diplomacy, hails from the fourteenth-century Italian city-state system (Neumann, I. 2012 ). After centuries of wrangling about reciprocity, permanent diplomacy went on to become a global phenomenon in the twentieth century. By then, a fourth tipping-point was already well in the making, driven by increased social complexity but also by

in Diplomatic tenses
Jacek Lubecki

-class/farmer masses to create an institutionalized form of interest representation in alliance with dissenting intellectuals and the Catholic Church. Unwilling to use force, the regime capitulated to the opposition demands, and, by fall 1980, authorized autonomous institutionalized forms of non-communist civil society, most importantly the Polish “Solidarity,” which was a massive social movement with some ten million members

in Defending Eastern Europe
Guns, ships and printing presses
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

manufactories, long-distance trade and systems of finance. Also, in the sixteenth century the Catholic Church lost its exclusive domination over the mind of European peoples. The old division between Christians and pagans was replaced by a new division within Europe itself between Catholics and Protestants. Partly because of this new division, Europe turned away from its enduring preoccupation with the Muslim threat. Instead of unifying against the challenge of the infidel Turk, European princes turned against each other. From 1530 on, Europe plunged into a

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

presence. Police, intelligence officers (Agence Nationale de Renseignement) and administrators do not have a permanent post. The Catholic Church, the hospital and a school are the closest forms of institutional authority present, in which the population has a direct input, even in decision-making processes. There is an established payment scheme for teachers, nurses and doctors, who also provide a loose form of authority. For instance, the women of the village built 171 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making the maternity wing of the small hospital

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making