Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
; Smith, 2014] . Likewise, French, Portuguese and South Africa
interference in the conflict was undertaken with the goal of destabilising Nigeria
and weakening its influence in West Africa [ Omaka, 2019 ; Siebert, 2018] .
The third element of this story is the on-going transition from empire to the
postcolonial era. That change manifested itself in different ways. The
Africanisation of the Nigerian CatholicChurch, for example, changed the role that
close to them killed or injured in the conflict. 1 These statistics provide us with some
indication of the experience of pain of the republican community. The
authors also remark that the pain of the wider Catholicchurch-going
community is greater than that of the Protestant church-going
population: ‘Among churchgoers, Catholics are three times more
likely to have been intimidated and
), Social Attitudes in Northern Ireland: The Fourth
Report 1994–1995 (Belfast: The Appletree Press Ltd,
1995), p. 30).
This conclusion is in keeping with the views of
Mary Harris, The CatholicChurch and the Foundation of the
Northern State (Cork: Cork University Press, 1993), p. 16.
reached its summit in 1994 when she
became Pro-Vice-Chancellor at Queen’s University, and the first woman
to serve in that role. Her academic career did not, however, shut out
involvement in public affairs. In 1984, she was a member of the CatholicChurch Episcopal Delegation to the New Ireland Forum, set up under
the premiership of Dr Garret Fitzgerald (qv). In 1996, in the wake of
the widespread disturbances which had broken out over parading,
the British government set up the Independent Review of Parades and
Marches chaired by Dr (later Sir) Peter North. Here, too
attitudes or roundly criticise the Roman CatholicChurch and on
occasions people at large appear to embrace untheological
The IRA and loyalist paramilitaries do not target religious
Catholicchurches have remained relatively inviolate.
National preferences are autonomous of religious beliefs.
People in Northern Ireland made it clear in a
Interviewee 12 views Protestant bigotry in terms of
Protestants’ fear of Catholicism as a faith and a religious system
(for ‘theological, tribal and all sorts of reasons’) whereas
he claims that Catholics are not afraid of the Protestant faith or
religious system. Protestants are paranoid about ‘Fenianism’
– a conglomeration of Sinn Fein, the SDLP, the CatholicChurch,
the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA
institution of apocrisiarii , whereby some representative of the CatholicChurch was resident in Byzantium. The first permanent, reciprocal and so fully-fledged example of this institution, which came to be known precisely as permanent diplomacy, hails from the fourteenth-century Italian city-state system (Neumann, I. 2012 ). After centuries of wrangling about reciprocity, permanent diplomacy went on to become a global phenomenon in the twentieth century.
By then, a fourth tipping-point was already well in the making, driven by increased social complexity but also by
-class/farmer masses to create an institutionalized form of interest representation in alliance with
dissenting intellectuals and the CatholicChurch. Unwilling to use
force, the regime capitulated to the opposition demands, and, by fall
1980, authorized autonomous institutionalized forms of non-communist
civil society, most importantly the Polish “Solidarity,”
which was a massive social movement with some ten million members
manufactories, long-distance trade and systems of finance.
Also, in the sixteenth century the CatholicChurch lost its exclusive domination over the mind of European peoples. The old division between Christians and pagans was replaced by a new division within Europe itself between Catholics and Protestants. Partly because of this new division, Europe turned away from its enduring preoccupation with the Muslim threat. Instead of unifying against the challenge of the infidel Turk, European princes turned against each other. From 1530 on, Europe plunged into a
presence. Police, intelligence officers (Agence Nationale de Renseignement) and
administrators do not have a permanent post. The CatholicChurch, the hospital
and a school are the closest forms of institutional authority present, in which
the population has a direct input, even in decision-making processes. There is
an established payment scheme for teachers, nurses and doctors, who also
provide a loose form of authority. For instance, the women of the village built
Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
the maternity wing of the small hospital