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Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

; Smith, 2014] . Likewise, French, Portuguese and South Africa interference in the conflict was undertaken with the goal of destabilising Nigeria and weakening its influence in West Africa [ Omaka, 2019 ; Siebert, 2018] . The third element of this story is the on-going transition from empire to the postcolonial era. That change manifested itself in different ways. The Africanisation of the Nigerian Catholic Church, for example, changed the role that expatriate missionaries

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Journalism in twentieth-century Ireland
Author: Mark O’Brien

This book examines the history of journalists and journalism in twentieth century Ireland. While many media institutions have been subjected to historical scrutiny, the professional and organisational development of journalists, the changing practices of journalism, and the contribution of journalists and journalism to the evolution of modern Ireland have not. This book rectifies this deficit by mapping the development of journalism in Ireland from the late 1880s to today. Beginning with the premise that the position of journalists and the power of journalism are products of their time and are shaped by ever-shifting political, economic, technological, and cultural forces it examines the background and values of those who worked as journalists, how they viewed and understood their role over the decades, how they organised and what they stood for as a professional body, how the prevailing political and social atmosphere facilitated or constrained their work, and, crucially, how their work impacted on social change and contributed to the development of modern Ireland. Placing the experiences of journalists and the practice of journalism at the heart of its analysis it examines, for the first time, the work of journalists within the ever-changing context of Irish society. Based on strong primary research – including the previously un-consulted journals and records produced by the many journalistic representative organisations that came and went over the decades – and written in an accessible and engaging style, this book will appeal to anyone interested in journalism, history, the media, and the development of Ireland as a modern nation.

John Anderson

in both doctrine and practice within the Roman Catholic Church, changes in the policies of important external actors, and what he calls ‘snowballing’ as one regime after another tumbled from the late 1970s onwards. 1 For our purposes it is his use of the religious argument that is most interesting, and in particular the focus upon change within one particular religious tradition. The first stage of his argument here is simply to observe the strong correlation between Western Christianity and democracy and to note that of 46 democracies

in Christianity and democratisation
Abstract only
John Anderson

the right to criticise majority representatives where they promoted values opposed to the teachings of the Church or, the more cynical might suggest, where they challenged the Church’s institutional interests. Nonetheless, and despite exceptions such as Argentina, there can be little doubt that during the ‘third wave’ the Catholic Church did become an institution that tended to support those arguing for an end to the abuse of human rights and the bringing down of authoritarian regimes. With the partial exception of Greece, in those

in Christianity and democratisation
Abstract only
Mark O’Brien

 –​in all its guises –​ came to dominate the journalistic agenda. To state that the political and banking scandals prompted a sense of cynicism and distrust of basic institutions among the public would be an understatement –​but worse was to follow. That other institution central to Irish society  –​the Catholic Church  –​also witnessed its relationship with journalism change utterly. In the early 1990s, the revelations that a priest and a bishop had fathered children were greeted with incredulity, with much anger being directed towards the media in the guise of

in The Fourth Estate
Catholic human rights discourse in Northern Ireland in the 1980s
Maria Power

, human rights has historically been recognised as an important issue in IR with ­important ramifications for peace. Despite the historic concern, definitions of human rights remain contested, with tensions persisting between secular and religious meanings, leading in some cases to clashes between the two.2 This chapter highlights the important role that the Catholic Church has played in conceptualising, defining, and attempting to promote the realisation of human rights around the world, including Northern Ireland. The Catholic Church has long been recognised for

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Charles E. Curran

the nineteenth century.1 This essay will develop three major points: the dramatic change that occurred with the Catholic acceptance of human rights in the latter part of the twentieth century, the basis and grounding of human rights in contemporary Catholic thought, and a somewhat troubling development in the teaching of Pope John Paul II. A dramatic change The most significant change was the dramatic move from adamant opposition to human rights to strong support for human rights in the second half of the twentieth century. The Catholic Church staunchly opposed human

in Religion and rights
John Anderson

leadership is important. Much also depends upon the attitude of the authoritarian regime, for in those systems ostensibly committed to ‘strengthening Christian civilisation’ it may be much harder to attack religious leaders, though in countries such as Chile and South Africa there was always the option of favouring one religious group over another. By way of contrast, communist authorities with their commitment to anti-religion could safely sideline or ignore leading clerics, except perhaps in Poland where the Catholic Church was able to retain its social authority

in Christianity and democratisation
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

6 The nation in social practice II Language, education and the Catholic Church The language question Many writers argue that language is one of the distinguishing aspects of a nation. Eugene Hammel, for instance, suggested that in the Balkans, linguistic and religious identification are the primary sources of nationality.1 Attempts to form a codified language for the Southern Slavs were a cornerstone of the Illyrian movement in the nineteenth century and both Yugoslav states tried to enforce a standardised state language as a means of avoiding the potentially

in The formation of Croatian national identity
The Catholic Church during the Celtic Tiger Years
Eamon Maher

1 Crisis, what crisis? The Catholic Church during the Celtic Tiger years Eamon Maher Any book purporting to offer a socio-­cultural critique of the Celtic Tiger cannot fail to deal with the thorny issue of Irish Catholicism. There is a commonly held belief that the Celtic Tiger hastened a wave of aggressive secularism that proved fatal to the hallowed status of organized religion in Ireland, and particularly to the majority faith, Roman Catholicism. However, such a perspective fails to recognize the steady decline in vocations to the priesthood from the beginning

in From prosperity to austerity