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The Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery
Stephen Snelders

a working relationship between the colonial state and the Roman Catholic Church. This was possible because of the ambivalence in governmental policies regarding the management of the Batavia asylum. The vast majority of the sufferers in the asylum were a special category of slaves; they were unproductive. Since the slaves only cost the government money, it was unwilling to invest resources in the asylum. For instance, although the asylum was established in 1824, medical services were only provided in the 1850s. To provide support and sustenance for the sufferers

in Leprosy and colonialism
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

. The French psychoanalytic movement largely dissolved, with many members forced into exile. Vichy promoted a strongly patriarchal vision of the family and gender roles, further excluding women from the professions. Its corporatist policies led to the formation of the Ordre des Médecins and increased state oversight of doctors. The Catholic Church assumed greater public prominence, promoting the themes of guilt, expiation and internal renewal. The first fifteen years of Dolto’s career were thus transitional and

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Abstract only
Popularising psychoanalysis, 1945–68
Richard Bates

and other aspects of popular culture regularly foregrounded psychological thinking, helping to create a form of ‘psychologised society’ in which, as Sarah Fishman writes, ‘the habit of seeing others, children, spouses, and the self, in psychological terms spread’. 3 As the last chapter showed, this tendency reached institutions such as the Catholic Church that had previously been relatively resistant to the new psychological disciplines. Another institution being won over was academia. The Sorbonne created an undergraduate

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Abstract only
Richard Bates

the mid-1970s looked and felt a lot different to twenty years previously. Most people no longer lived or expected to live as their parents and grandparents had: only 22 per cent of the sons of shopkeepers and artisans and 38 per cent of the sons of farmers followed their fathers’ professions in 1977, compared to 48 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively, in 1953. 16 Nor did they look to the same sources of reassurance and guidance in the face of these upheavals. The Catholic Church saw sharp drops in church attendance

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Barbra Mann Wall

with many groups of women and men as they established hospitals and schools of nursing in Nigeria. Sisters combined religious commitment and medical science to relieve physical and spiritual suffering; indeed, they were bound by strong ties of gender, professionalism and religion. Nuns were strongly affected by the Catholic Church’s emphasis on women’s authority in the home and family; and when sisters ran hospitals and clinics, many focused on maternal care and children. They also recruited women for their religious congregations and engaged women as students in

in Colonial caring
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Jacques Gélis

were rarely known outside very circumscribed places of devotion. The French Catholic Church did not encourage these expressions of popular worship, considering them dubious practices and even attempting to suppress them.9 But it was to no avail, so strong was the popular attachment to these minor local saints. Disorders of the guts provoked extreme anxiety: people particularly feared the infantile diarrhoea that struck very young children every summer and dehydrated them; a woman in childbirth could encounter terrible difficulties if her pelvis proved to be too

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Philomena Gorey

elsewhere. The performance of emergency baptism by midwives and lay people formed part of the ecclesiastical policy of the Church of Ireland and the Counter-Reformation Catholic Church from the early seventeenth century. A broad range of historical scholarship on the churches in Ireland is thus relevant to the subject of this chapter. The writings of Bishops Daniel McCarthy and P. F. Moran in the 1860s were the first to allude to doctrinal decrees which emanated from the Catholic Synods that took place in Ireland in the Counter

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine