’s right to work.
Although the Constitution proclaimed that marriage was based on the equality of the sexes, the Civil Code of 1900 was not amended, and it was to be 1975 before the Federal Republic enacted a law granting men and women equality in marriage. 6 Any attempt to improve women’s status within marriage, to improve the status of illegitimate children or to amend the divorce laws was fiercely opposed by the Catholic Church, and the Protestant and Catholicwomen’s organisations continued to act as the guardians of the nation’s moral standards and the
cities across Germany devoted themselves to caring for troops en route to the front or in hospital, other women’s groups, including those affiliated to the BdF, women from the CatholicWomen’s League (Katholischer Frauenbund Deutschlands, KFB) and social democratic women came together under the banner of the National Women’s Service (Nationaler Frauendienst, NFD) to become a major provider of social welfare. 76 The NFD was the brainchild of Dr Gertrud Bäumer, the leader of the BdF, which at the outbreak of the war claimed to have some half a million members. Bäumer
over a number of years, principally from the Federal Archives in Koblenz and Berlin, the Zentrales Staatsarchiv Potsdam in the former German Democratic Republic, the Helene-Lange-Archiv, now housed in the Landesarchiv Berlin, the archives of the German Protestant Women’s League, now housed in the Archiv der Deutschen Frauenbewegung in Kassel, the archives of the German CatholicWomen’s League in Cologne and a variety of smaller archives. 35 Historians of modern Germany are fortunate to have a range of official statistical publications at their disposal, and during
a 1927 survey conducted by the Association of CatholicWomen Teachers, in which 9,392 women participated, nearly three-quarters (72 per cent) had their own household and a mere 11 per cent lived with their parents. However, 71.2 per cent of the respondents supported relatives, usually a mother or a sister, and so could not necessarily live an independent existence. 136
During the Weimar Republic women’s share of the teaching profession remained fairly stable, at just under one-third, in part because many states had established ratios for male and female teachers
) opened an advisory office in Berlin, which ran training courses in public speaking for women and provided female speakers for many of the meetings held by the Protestant Church to educate women about the vote, as well as producing numerous leaflets and brochures. 28 In early December it agreed to work together with the Political Working Group of German CatholicWomen’s Associations to educate Christian women to vote in the forthcoming election. 29 The committee charged with the political education of women adopted the maxims ‘The right to vote means a duty to vote
. Helene Willfüer of a single mother, Helene, who obtains her doctorate, works in a laboratory on a successful rejuvenation technique and marries her former professor. A member of the Federation of CatholicWomen Students’ Associations repudiated Baum’s depiction of female students, claiming that women did not go to university to indulge in free love, and that Helene, in conceiving a child with another student, attempting to get an abortion and contemplating suicide, was far removed from the feminine ideal to which they aspired. 138 Baum’s other major work, Menschen
regular contributor to the Tablet which, from 1888, under the influence of its editor J. G. Snead-Cox, began to speak favourably of women’s enfranchisement. Clayton got involved in the activities of the Men’s League for Woman Suffrage, and the Women Writers’ Suffrage League. His pamphlet ‘Votes for Women’ (1918) was published by the CatholicWomen’s Suffrage Society. When a student at Oxford, he had befriended F. D. Maurice and Charles Kingsley, but he gave the full measure of his political engagement on joining the Leeds ILP branch. Clayton edited the Labour
. Charles Fleming Williams and his wife; the CatholicWomen’s Suffrage Society (1911) with Joseph Clayton and Francis Meynell as members; the Jewish League for Woman Suffrage (1912) with Laura and Leonard Frankin.
184 A Liberal Men’s Association for Women’s Suffrage was formed in protest against Asquith’s policy in 1913.
185 The Rebels’ Social and Political Union and the East London Men’s Society were largely working-class associations.
186 The lawyer Herbert Jacobs’s Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage (1907) attracted high
, vengeful, lascivious, impressionable, and intellectually inferior – before saying that wicked women (the qualification is important), are particularly ruled by three moral failings: infidelitas , ostentation, and lust. Infidelitas , we may recall, is the opposite of fides , amounting to a lack of adherence to the probable truth of the reality of things invisible. Such an infidelitas in Catholicwomen was either the equivalent of, or could quickly lead to, perfidia , a betrayal of the Faith, since the vacuum thus created would not remain empty but find itself