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Barbra Mann Wall

This chapter analyses shifting dynamics within medical missionary work in Nigeria, from support for British colonialism to humanitarianism. It explores Irish Catholic missionaries as nurses, midwives and physicians from c.1937-1970, to the end of the Nigerian Civil War in 1970. It uses unpublished documents to disentangle, although not disconnect, modern missionary work from colonialism. Using gender as a category of analysis it focuses on women’s work during the Nigerian civil war compared to men’s activities, and how the media focused on one but not the other. By giving voice to the “silenced” in history it argues that there was a significant Nigerian presence in relief work during the war, differing from most research which focuses only on the work of whites. Significantly, in the 1960s and 1970s, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for shifts in the understanding of mission during periods of violence and upheaval. As Catholic women renegotiated their place in an emerging decolonised world, complex relationships developed among Irish sisters, Nigerian nuns, priests, Nigerian chiefs and international peacekeepers. Whereas in the 1930s and 1940s, Catholic sisters saw Africa as a fertile ground for converts, over time the Catholic mission tradition liberalised to promote humanitarianism.

in Colonial caring
Jolien Gijbels and Kaat Wils

Droit des Femmes), this and other politically ‘neutral’ associations were founded, alongside socialist and Catholic women’s organisations. Neo-Malthusianism was marginal within first-wave feminism in and beyond Belgium. The socialist feminist Emilie Claeys was one of the only Belgian pioneers who defended the use of contraceptives in the early 1890s. She associated voluntary

in Medical histories of Belgium
Open Access (free)
Joris Vandendriessche and Tine Van Osselaer

‘philopassionism’ was indeed a Catholic tradition and there was a revitalisation of this medieval idealisation of Christ’s pain in the nineteenth century, this was certainly not the only Catholic view on pain of that time. As scholars as Richard Burton have emphasised, the idealised, voluntary, suffering was a minority calling and many Catholic women dedicated their lives to relieving

in Medical histories of Belgium
Dirk Luyten and David Guilardian

the population on the fringes of the market, 16 options for medical care slowly expanded for the poorer class too. In the second half of the century, the weight of individual philanthropy, such as that of local elites or of upper-class Catholic women’s societies, decreased to give way to large-scale organised forms of philanthropy. As public welfare

in Medical histories of Belgium
George Campbell Gosling

other cases they collaborated with religious organisations, ranging from the Bristol Diocesan Moral Welfare Association and the Waifs and Strays Society to the Catholic Women's League. The hospitals worked with a host of public bodies, including the Unemployment Assistance Board and a variety of municipal committees including on education, health and housing, as well as institutions already bringing together public and voluntary welfare

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48