Henry Manning’s (1808–92) transition from Anglican to Roman Catholic convert has not received the extensive attention that John Henry Newman’s journey to Roman Catholicism has received. Though more than a half dozen treatments have appeared in recent decades, newly acquired archival resources received by the Westminster Diocesan Archives in 2014 warrant a new appraisal of the events leading to his conversion. How could a committed adherent of the Oxford Movement, who did not initially follow Newman’s example in 1845, make the decision to leave the Church of his birth in 1851? What interior process enabled Archdeacon Henry Manning to preside over the assembly of Chichester clergy that condemned ‘papal aggression’ in 1850, and announce at the conclusion of the vote that he would be received into the Roman communion? This article outlines undercurrents in Manning’s thought, traces of which can be found in his undergraduate years, and considers concepts that culminated in the decision that changed his life, and guided his Roman Catholic ecclesial outlook. His role in shaping the agenda of Vatican I and the post-conciliar era heightens the significance of this background.
Catholicism and Nonconformity in Nineteenth-Century ‘Jewish Conversion’ Novels
This article examines English Evangelical novels focused on the conversion of Jewish characters, published from the 1820s to the 1850s. It concentrates particularly on the way these novels emphasised the importance of the Church of England in constructing national and religious identity, and used Jewish conversion as a way to critique Catholicism and Nonconformity. Jewish worship, rabbinic authority and Talmudic devotion were linked to Roman Catholic attitudes towards priesthood and tradition, while Jews were also portrayed as victims of a persecuting Roman Church. Nonconformity was criticised for disordered worship and confusing Jews with its attacks on respectable Anglicanism. As a national religion, novelists therefore imagined that Jews would be saved by a national church, and often linked this to concepts of a national restoration to Palestine. This article develops and complicates understandings of Evangelical views of Jews in the nineteenth century, and their links to ‘writing the nation’ in popular literature.
William Tyndale, the Bible translator and Reformation martyr, enjoyed a sudden
revival of interest in the mid-nineteenth century. This article examines one
important aspect of his Victorian rehabilitation – his memorialization in stone
and bronze. It analyses the campaigns to,erect two monuments in his honour – a
tower on Nibley Knoll in Gloucestershire, inaugurated in 1866; and a statue in
central London, on the Thames Embankment, unveiled in 1884. Both enjoyed wide
support across the political and ecclesiastical spectrum of Protestantism, and
anti-Catholicism was especially prominent in the first initiative. Both
monuments emphasized the blessings of the Bible in English, the importance of
religious liberty, and the prosperity of England and the Empire as a result of
its Reformation heritage. The article argues that controversy concerning
Tractarianism and biblical criticism was brushed under the carpet, and Tyndales
distinctive evangelical theology was deliberately downplayed, in order to
present the martyr as a unifying figure attractive to a broad Protestant
This article charts and discusses the reasons for various significant shifts and
developments during the nineteenth century of the reception of the Reformation
amongst different denominations and groups within British Protestantism.
Attitudes towards Foxes ‘Book of Martyrs’ are explored as but one among several
litmus tests of the breakdown of an earlier fragile consensus based on
anti-Catholicism as a unifying principle, with the Oxford Movement and the
intra-Protestant reaction to it identified as a crucial factor. The selfidentity
of the various British Protestant,denominations, notably the various
Nonconformist bodies as well as the established Church and evangelicalism per se
was at stake in the process of ‘reception’. Moreover, the emergence of more
secular Protestant understandings of the significance of the Reformation as an
essential stage in the emergence of modernity and liberty, often at odds with
nineteenth-century evangelical theological interpretations of its meaning and
legacy, are also highlighted. The result is an attempt to transcend the
traditional focus on Protestant-Catholic disputes over the Reformation in
narrowly bipolar terms.
This article considers the sermons preached by royal chaplains at the court of James II and the organisation of the chapel royal by James as a Catholic organisation. In doing so, it addresses the question of where James’s assurance and certainty came from that he was ruling as God wished him to do. The evidence presented here is that James organised his Catholic chapel royal to be a conscious source of guidance and support. His chaplains reciprocated by addressing him as a Catholic king whose duty was to bring to heel a recalcitrant and stubborn people. His chaplains used historical precedent and theological argument to press on James his determination to bring his Protestant subjects to obedience. This is a study of the Catholic milieu of James’s court and of the theological impetus behind his rule.
This article addresses three topics. It describes Chartisms creation of a
‘peoples history’ as an alternative to middle-class history, whether Whig or
Tory. It locates the sources, most of which have not been noticed before, for
the Chartist narrative of the English Reformation. William Cobbetts
reinterpretation of the English Reformation is well known as a source for the
working-class narrative; William Howitts much less familiar but more important
source, antedating Cobbetts History of the Protestant Reformation in
England, is used for the first time. The article reconstructs that
narrative using printed and manuscript lectures and published interpretations
dating from the first discussions of the Peoples Charter in 1836 to the last
Chartist Convention in 1858. The manuscript lectures of Thomas Cooper are an
essential but little-used source. The article contributes to historical
understanding of the intellectual life of the English working class.
This article examines Presbyterian interpretations in Scotland and Ireland of the
Scottish Reformations of 1560 and 1638–43. It begins with a discussion of the
work of two important Presbyterian historians of the early nineteenth century,
the Scotsman, Thomas McCrie, and the Irishman, James Seaton Reid. In their
various publications, both laid the template for the nineteenth-century
Presbyterian understanding of the Scottish Reformations by emphasizing the
historical links between the Scottish and Irish churches in the early-modern
period and their common theology and commitment to civil and religious liberty
against the ecclesiastical and political tyranny of the Stuarts. The article
also examines the commemorations of the National Covenant in 1838, the Solemn
League and Covenant in 1843, and the Scottish Reformation in 1860. By doing so,
it uncovers important religious and ideological linkages across the North
Channel, including Presbyterian evangelicalism, missionary activity,
church–state relationships, religious reform and revival, and
Following an extended period of neglect, the early 1840s saw a dramatic revival
of interest in English church music and its history, which coincided with the
period of heightened religious sensitivity between the publication of Newman‘s
Tract 90 in early 1841 and his conversion to Roman Catholicism in October 1845.
This article examines the activities and writings of three men who made
important contributions to the reformation of the music of the English church
that took place at this time: Rev. Frederick Oakeley; Rev. John Jebb and the
painter William Dyce. It pays particular attention to the relationship between
their beliefs about and attitudes towards the English Reformation and their
musical activities, and argues that such important works as Jebb‘s monumental
Choral Service of the United Church of England and Ireland
(1843) are best understood in the context of the religious and ecclesiological
debates that were raging at that time.
Catholicism, Bradford was condemned and imprisoned.
Awaiting his death, he wrote a ‘Farewell to Lancashire and
Cheshire’, which contained a passionate plea for repentance from
the places he knew so well.
Turn unto the Lord, yet once more I heartily
beseech the, thou Manchester, thou Ashton-under-line, thou
Bolton, Bury, Wigan, Liverpool, Mottrine, Stepport, Winsley,
Eccles, Prestwich, Middleton, Radcliffe, and thou city of
West-chester, where I have truly taught and preached the word of
contrast the Baroque – despite the multiple meanings it had accrued over the course of almost five decades – was still too easily conflated with Catholicism.
True, several measures had been taken to ease the tension between Italy's Fascist state and religious institutions. For example the 1929 Lateran Pacts rendered relations between the Italian state and the Catholic Church friendlier than they had previously been since the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870. Still, Fascist authorities aspired to create ‘a new Italian’, part of