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Helen Thompson

Gasperi’s government was free to chase growth through a low-wage economy. Having categorically excluded and weakened the left, the DC government was protected on its authoritarian flank. It could assure the church and its believers that the language of Italian nationhood was an indivisible Catholicism and anticommunism. The opponents of the church, the government promised, were also the political enemies of the Italian state. The very Catholic bent of the Italian language of anti-communism gave it a nationalist tone that perhaps more subtly than elsewhere disguised the

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Michael Mannin

security for emergent European Christianity to emerge and to survive. Later – with the Empire moving from Rome to Constantinople – came a persistent religious division that has remained to this day (Catholicism versus Orthodoxy). These and other bequests to subsequent versions of Europe emerged over time as interpretations/myths of the past to fit the imperialism of Napoleonic Europe, nineteenth- and twentieth-century European democratic idealisms, and Mussolini’s justification for a twentieth-century Mare nostrum. Europe as Christendom (700–1450) presents a more

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Catholic human rights discourse in Northern Ireland in the 1980s
Maria Power

authoritarian, to a force for change, usually democratic’.9 Consequently, ‘Catholicism was second only to economic development as a pervasive force for democratization in the 1970s and 1980s’.10 In many Latin American states, the Church became less tolerant of the human rights violations of dictatorial regimes and advocated democracy and the protection of citizens from abusive governmental policies. These included not only the oppression of political opponents of regimes but also government policies which supported the economic well-being of a few at the expense of the many

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Casper Sylvest

the academic discipline of International Relations (IR).23 Acton’s influence is more indirect. Although he lived for a shorter time and was more of an outsider due to his ‘un-English’ cosmopolitanism and Catholicism, he was capable of addressing the English liberal imagination. Taken together, their different approaches to the emerging discipline and the practice of history reflect the broad appeal of historical representations and its relationship to political debates. Bryce, Morley and Acton 151 Liberal internationalism and the uses of history form a relatively

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Past, present, and future
Matthias Maass

Münster and Osnabrück to agree on the secularization of international politics and equality of states regardless of their adoption of either Catholicism or Protestantism. The notion of equality did not at all imply the negation of physical, material, or power differences. In sum, the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century states system featured only modest restraints on the use of power beyond the dynamics of the equilibrium of powers. However, the balance of power was a meaningful restraint and was fueled by a high level of mistrust, competition, and jealousy among the

in Small states in world politics
A game-changing earthquake in the relationship
James W. Peterson

religion for his people than the Jewish faith, Roman Catholicism, or Islam (Kalb 2015 , 28–33). In 1791 Catherine the Great's forces wrested the Crimea from the Ottoman Empire and made it part of Russia until Khrushchev attached it to the Ukrainian Republic in 1954 (Kalb 2015 , 57–58). General Suvorov (1730–1800) had defeated the Turkish fortress at Ismail, and the two empires signed the Treaty of Jassy in 1791. The Russians celebrated Catherine's conquests by adopting their first state anthem, “Let the thunder of victory sound!” in which they identified her as the

in Russian-American relations in the post-Cold War world
Open Access (free)
M. Anne Brown

, in contrast to the religiously mixed but predominantly Muslim Indonesians. This Catholicism reflects in part the bequest of Portuguese colonialism, but more potently stands as a rejection of an Indonesian identity. It is sometimes suggested that the period of Portuguese rule was one of benign neglect. The neglect is indisputable – little effort at development or the provision of services was made until the 1950s. By 1973 the illiteracy rate of the East Timorese was estimated at 93 per cent, and infant mortality in the 1950s (1960s’ and 1970s

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Abstract only
Mary C. Murphy

cent of the population were Catholic (an increase of 1 per cent from 2001) and 48 per cent Introduction 7 were Protestant (a drop of 5 per cent from 2001) (NISRA 2013a: 28). The religious breakdown of society provides a loose basis for understanding the conflict. Roman Catholicism is generally associated with nationalism, while the Protestant faiths are generally linked to unionism. This is not to imply that the Northern Ireland ‘Troubles’ were wholly religious in character. The role of religion should not be discounted, but it is less significant than other, more

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Northern Ireland political Catholicism and nationalism, a propagator of fundamentalist Protestantism and a bitter critic of the British government whenever proposals for a compromise settlement in Northern Ireland are mooted. Paisley opposed the Sunningdale Agreement in 1972, for instance. His behaviour in the House of Commons has resulted in his exclusion on several occasions. [See also: Good Friday Agreement*; Stormont

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska

/single/2y10m). His case is particularly interesting since he converted to Islam in England. What is also notable is that Marek's rationale for the conversion referred to clearer and stricter rules in Islam in comparison to Catholicism: I have changed my denomination from Christianity to Islam – intentionally and recently. […] I liked some life principles, most of all, some regulations which you can find in the Koran. They help to take control over life when it begins to be a chaos. […] Over years

in Rethinking settlement and integration