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Andrew Lynch

Catholicism at face value, including the apparent outlook and discourse of his religious tales, that his ‘attitude toward prevailing religious values is most basically one of protest against a controlling, inquisitorial Church, or against a credulous, sensual piety’, and that in various ways the mainstream of modern criticism ‘presupposes Chaucer’s privileging of rational [what she calls ‘Protestant’] religion over “simplicity of belief”’.2 There is no need to go all the way back to the Reformation to find the basis for views of this kind. Rarely did critics of the long

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Elisabeth Salter

this over-simplified way of understanding the transition from Catholicism to Protestantism in relation to script and print. Based on evidence for scribbled-out words in religious books, Martha Driver has explored the ‘complex relationships Protestantism had with Catholicism’, suggesting that post-reformation readers may have had an interest in preserving the medieval past whilst carrying out the required modifications of early reforming years.90 In his detailed examination of a manuscript copy of a Book of Common Prayer (1562), Sherman demonstrates the possibilities

in Popular reading in English c. 1400–1600
Elizabeth A. R. Brown

’, as Freedman and Spiegel put it (p. 688), ‘to reinterpret medieval governmental history by making it compatible with American democratic principles’. Cantor notes ( Inventing, pp. 278, 282), ‘Strayer’s anticlericalism and contempt for Roman Catholicism’, and his belief in ‘the legitimacy, credibility, and winning capacity of the rationalizing statists in all times and places’. 17 Joseph R. Strayer, ‘The Laicization of French and English Society in the Thirteenth Century’, Speculum , 15 (1940), 76–86, reprinted in John F. Benton and Thomas N. Bisson (eds

in Law, laity and solidarities
Reccared and Charlemagne
Janneke Raaijmakers and Irene van Renswoude

theological debates.18 We will focus on just one strand of this rich transmission: the Visigothic conciliar tradition, with King Reccared (586–601) as its most significant proponent. King Reccared is most famously remembered for having initiated the conversion of the Visigoths – the heretical ‘barbarians’ who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in the mid-fifth century – to Catholicism. We will not concern ourselves here with Reccared’s motives for embracing Catholicism, which according to some was part of a comprehensive programme of ‘Romanisation’ that had already started

in Religious Franks
Bergur Þorgeirsson

Sweden in 1905. Within this context, the publication of Old Norse texts about Vikings crossing the Atlantic and finding a new continent assumed great importance in the United States. Throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, indeed, descendants of both Scandinavians and non-Scandinavians (like Carlyle) celebrated the heroic ‘Viking temperament’. 10 Both groups were sometimes further united in a struggle against the influence of Catholicism and even immigration from Catholic countries like Ireland and Italy. 11 Within the United States

in From Iceland to the Americas
Fact, fiction, and film
Kevin J. Harty

with the building of Newport’s tower, its construction would, at one time or another, be attributed to Chinese traders, to Knights Templar, and to unidentified astronomers, among many others. Most recently, it has been assigned to John Dee, an advisor to England’s Elizabeth I, who was, according to the latest theory about the tower’s origin, intent upon establishing Roman Catholicism in the New World. The tower’s link to the Vikings, however, has proven to be the most unshakeable. 24 When a supposed skeleton in armour was discovered at Fall River, Massachusetts

in From Iceland to the Americas
Abstract only
J. J. Anderson

highly developed doctrines and practices of late medieval Catholicism in the pre-Reformation years. Both poets see a gap between what is theoretically and actually possible for human beings to achieve in the moral and religious sphere – the difficulty or impossibility of comprehending in other than an intellectual way the mysteries of Christian doctrine, that is, of ever succeeding in applying that doctrine meaningfully to their own lives. Like Langland the Gawain -poet is perhaps trying to write out his own anxieties as much as to give his readers food for thought

in Language and imagination in the Gawain-poems
Chaucer in the nineteenth-century popular consciousness
Stephen Knight

-moved, thought-uttering throng ! Homer of our old Fatherland ! I see – I picture how thy now quaint rhyme hath fired Our rude forefathers, who their sons inspired With glowing thought that had its source in thee !27 Chaucerian scholarship and lectures Though Catholicism might have passed, with what Horne here calls ‘the soul’s dense midnight gloom’, forces were at work to make the understanding of Chaucer require longer and more scholarly hours, and that around the world. A strong early contender was the well-known poet and scholar James Russell Lowell, of Boston’s Lowell

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Open Access (free)
Nicola McDonald

newly discovered and celebrated forms of classical poetry. As such they are more indicative of post-medieval prejudice, about everything from social class to Catholicism, than anything inherent in the medieval genre. And it is precisely these inherited distinctions that we, informed by the insights of post-structuralist thought, have learned to interrogate. Yet, popular romance has hardly benefited from the collapse of the traditional hierarchies of aesthetic (and with it academic) judgement. There must be many reasons why. The slowness with which medieval English

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
The legend and its early modern reworkings
Ladan Niayesh

mysterious Ali is a local saint or a martyr (while in fact Morteza Ali, to give him his correct name, is Muhammad’s son-in-law and the first Imam of the Persian Shiites), while ‘by’r lady’ subtly suggests Roman Catholicism, to which the Sherleys had converted in the course of their peregrinations, a circumstance which is of course not included openly in this propagandist work meant

in A knight’s legacy