In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?
The article will present the findings of ethnographic research into the Colombian and Mexican forensic systems, introducing the first citizen-led exhumation project made possible through the cooperation of scholars, forensic specialists and interested citizens in Mexico. The coupling evolution and mutual re-constitution of forensic science will be explored, including new forms of citizenship and nation building projects – all approached as lived experience – in two of Latin America‘s most complex contexts: organised crime and mass death.
moment, in Mbembe’s account, there is a seeming normalisation of warfare: war against 91 92 Europe minorities, women, Muslims, disabled people and the working classes.4 The effect not only blurs ‘the supposed relationship between citizenship and democracy’ but serves to ‘incapacitate whole sections of the population politically’.5 Mbembe’s critical thinking on recent events in South Africa resonates with our anti/decolonial stance in Western museums, and we highlight him here in solidarity with freedom movements globally. These scenarios above mark out the
citizenship through the Edict of Caracalla of 212 CE (recorded in P. Giessen 40). Similarly to Egyptology, the history of papyrology, the academic discipline dedicated to the study of this distinct type of ancient writings, is intertwined with the European imperial colonial enterprise in the Middle East. 2 Great Britain’s participation in this venture developed especially after the direct military British intervention in Egyptian politics from 1882 onwards. In June of that year British troops invaded the country to stop Ahmed
‘If this isn’t Canadian history’, he said, ‘I don’t know what else is’.18 Noma then sent a formal complaint to the Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism, Jason Kenney, who in turn wrote to the museum’s director, urging him to 149 150 North America reconsider the decision: ‘This is a significant part of Canada’s history which suits the new display that will offer a narrative of our country’s history. It is regrettable that this gift is now to be shipped back.’ So direct and public an intervention by a government minister in the work of an arm
able to remain in the UK after the war, responding to the British government’s call for workers in light of labour shortages in 1945. 186 Others, like Ted Misiewicz, obtained citizenship in the UK under the Polish Resettlement Act (1947). 187 Many former Alderney prisoners of various nationalities faced years of complex negotiations regarding their citizenship in their homelands or the countries in which they decided to settle. 188 For others who wanted to go home, the process of getting there was
and preservation of heritage – art and culture – in the context of bourgeois, national projects. Museums, as they became established, were purveyors of normative models of citizenship, taste, education and progress, as is detailed in the well-known work of scholars like Carol Duncan, Tony Bennett and others.3 In the nineteenth century, the times of the curator were normatively lined up in a singular, developmental History. But it is important to recognise that this history was less and less anchored by the teleologies of either Christian salvation or Enlightenment
antiquities were rather less direct than those of Haworth, but resulted in a significant proportion of Graeco-Roman pieces entering the collections of Manchester Museum. Robinow was born in Hamburg into a German Jewish banking family. Like his father, Max was a partner in the shipping firm Gottschalck and Company and administered the Robinow family’s business interests in England, moving to Manchester and taking up British citizenship in 1875. Fig 27 The Gods and their
1945. Like his fellow 999 Brigade members, he was retained for interrogation by British investigator Captain Kent who noted his ‘anti-Nazi’ attitude. 107 At least 855 deportees were sent to Alderney from France in several transports between August and December 1943. 109 Although many of these men had been born in France, many were born elsewhere (e.g. Turkey, Egypt, the USA, Romania). 110 Some had dual citizenship, while others were simply classed as French because they were arrested in