Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 47 items for :

  • "Citizenship" x
  • Human Geography x
  • Refine by access: All content x
Clear All
Labour NGOs and the struggle for migrant workers’ rights

In twenty-first-century Chinese cities there are hundreds of millions of rural migrants who are living temporary lives, suspended between urban and rural China. They are the unsung heroes of the country’s ‘economic miracle’, yet are regarded as second-class citizens in both a cultural, material and legal sense. China’s citizenship challenge tells the story of how civic organisations set up by some of these rural migrants challenge this citizenship marginalisation. The book argues that in order to effectively address the problems faced by migrant workers, these NGOs must undertake ‘citizenship challenge’: the transformation of migrant workers’ social and political participation in public life, the broadening of their access to labour and other rights, and the reinvention of their relationship to the city. By framing the NGOs’ activism in terms of citizenship rather than class struggle, this book offers a valuable contribution to the field of labour movement studies in China. The monograph also proves exceptionally timely in the context of the state’s repression of these organisations in recent years, which, as the book explores, was largely driven by their citizenship-altering activism.

A genealogical enquiry
Małgorzata Jakimów

The story of citizenship is closely linked to the story of urbanisation: the story of how urban life imposed a different perspective of time and space which forged national consciousness, of how communities transformed from tight, familial networks to self-governing bodies of individuals, of how technology, the mainstream urban cultures and city images shaped urbanites’ identity. From Greek polis, to the emergence of medieval cities to the multicultural, global cities of nowadays, city has been central to the shaping of citizenship. Yet, in

in China’s citizenship challenge
Abstract only
Citizenship challenge, social inequality and the insecure state
Małgorzata Jakimów

The Chinese state has long insisted that the ‘Chinese human rights’ ethos prioritises social rights above political and civil rights. Yet, the modernisation project in China has been geared towards high economic growth to ensure the regime's survival, rather than protection of any rights, social or otherwise. Indeed, the economic growth was achieved precisely at the cost of limited citizenship rights, which created unprecedented levels of social inequality. The population that emerged on the losing side of this social divide, the rural

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

the funders, to actually end up doing what they say they are committed to do. This chapter is an investigation into how NGOs’ acts of networking with foreign donors, 1 other NGOs and migrant workers can be transformative of citizenship. While their relationship with the state is a recurrent theme in the literature on NGOs, their relationships with funders are much less well researched. But the discussion of these relationships is essential to fully account for civic organising in China as a site

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

citizenship. While the formation of NGOs seems to be a relatively moderate attempt to target injustice suffered by this vast social group in China, it remains rare and fraught with difficulty. But why is organising a migrant NGO so difficult? Is it because of the state's policies, or rather, is it the result of the lack of funding, lack of relationship with appropriate authorities ( guanxi ) or lack of social capital (Franceschini, 2014 )? There are certainly all these issues to consider, but they do largely boil down to the underlying problem of uneven

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

While the previous chapter reflected on the role of the state-approved channels of labour law in the process of citizenship transformation, this chapter looks at the acts of citizenship around labour which call the law into question or which put forward claims beyond legalism. These acts, however, should not be understood as ‘illegal’. Some of them reach out beyond the law simply because they question the wider social order as the source of labour exploitation, rather than focus only on the law. Others try to shape the existing laws through

in China’s citizenship challenge
Abstract only
Labour non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

working-class status. What can be broadly conceived of as spatial claims arise from the experience of marginalisation within the cities, resulting in an existence suspended between rural and urban, producing a profound experience of non-belonging. This book presents how labour NGOs come across, and consequently are forced to address, the question of citizenship as a key unifying factor behind such treatment of migrant workers in China. Migrant workers’ citizenship in China has traditionally been discussed in relation to the infamous hukou system

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

‘safety’. Yet, this ‘clean-up’ of migrant workers continued a process of gentrification and expulsion initiated much earlier by the municipal governments: it was simply the most recent event in the chain of the Beijing authorities’ decisions to further the long-standing plan of turning the capital into a global city with no place for low-income population. The demolition of urban villages in Daxing is just one example of how citizenship exclusion manifests not only discursively, but also materially, in migrant workers’ experience of urban China. This

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

Given the centrality of labour in migrant worker NGOs’ work, why not simply understand their involvement in countering social injustice as labour activism? Indeed, a great proportion of the existing studies would label these organisations’ work as part of a wider labour movement, primarily linked to the rise of working-class consciousness among migrant workers (Sun, 2014 ; Chan, 2012a ; Friedman and Lee, 2010 ; Chen and Yang, 2017 ; Froissart, 2018 ; Xu Y., 2013 ). But isn't the history of the working class a history of citizenship

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

The focus of the remaining two chapters is the type of activism which addresses temporality, marginality and exclusion of migrants’ experience in their encounters with the city, and which transforms the spatial relationship between urban and rural that defines migrants’ citizenship. While citizenship-altering activism performed around the issues of civic organising and labour is much talked about, the activism which takes space, and particularly urban space, as its core is often neglected. While human geographers have recently focused on

in China’s citizenship challenge