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Romani Minorities in Europe and Civic Marginalisation

Numerous scholars and policymakers have highlighted the predicament of Roma as the most disadvantaged ethnic minority in Europe. This predicament has often been discussed as an unfortunate anomaly within otherwise inclusive liberal democratic states.

In this book, Julija Sardelić offers a novel socio-legal enquiry into the position of Roma as marginalised citizens in Europe. Whilst acknowledging previous research on ethnic discrimination, racism and the socio-economic disadvantages Roma face in Europe, she discusses civic marginalisation from the perspective of global citizenship studies. She argues that the Romani minorities in Europe are unique, but the approaches of civic marginalisation Roma have faced are not. States around the globe have applied similar legislation and policies that have made traditionally settled minorities marginalised. These may have seemed inclusive to all citizens or have been designed to improve the position of minority citizens yet they have often actively contributed to the construction of civic marginalisation. The book looks at civic marginalisation by examining topics such as free movement and migration, statelessness and school segregation as well as how minorities respond to marginalisation. It shows how marginalised minorities can have a wide spectrum of ‘multicultural rights’ and still face racism and significant human rights violations. To understand such a paradox, Sardelić offers new theoretical concepts, such as the invisible edges of citizenship and citizenship fringes.

Total infringement of citizenship

to End Statelessness itself included a photo of what seemed to be a frightened child looking through the glass window. The caption read: ‘Roma girl in Croatia already knows the difficulties of being stateless. She lives with her family in a makeshift room with no running water, electricity or sanitation. They survive by collecting scrap metal’ (UNHCR, 2014a : cover photo). The caption tried to capture the value of citizenship that Hannah Arendt ( 1968 : 298) described as the ‘right to have rights’. Three years after the Global Action Plan

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Peter J. Spiro

Introduction Rainer Bauböck's “Democratic Inclusion: A Pluralistic Theory of Citizenship” is characteristically incisive. In this essay and elsewhere (e.g. Bauböck 2003, 2007 ), he has liberated normative political theory from the girdle of territorial boundary conditions. If ever it was, it is obviously no longer possible to posit a world of perfectly segmented national communities. For normative theory to remain

in Democratic inclusion

investigate the clash between these two meanings of territoriality, the chapter highlights the case of trans-border minorities and minorities that have been present on a territory before current borders were formed. It specifically examines how states move away from the ideal of ethical territoriality and deem not only migrants but some of their citizens as having ‘less-than-complete-membership’ (Bosniak, 2007 : 392) with a position closer to that of foreign residents. Echoing Nyers' ( 2019 ) theory on irregular citizenship, the chapter examines acts of sovereignty (Nyers

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Editor: Rainer Bauböck

This book addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, and the specification and justification of rights of non-citizen immigrants as well as non-resident citizens. It also addresses the conditions under which norms governing citizenship can legitimately vary. The book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic inclusion. The book proposes that democratic inclusion principles specify a relation between an individual or group that has an inclusion claim and a political community that aims to achieve democratic legitimacy for its political decisions and institutions. It contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state, local and regional polities and argues that they differ in their membership character. It examines how a principle of stakeholder inclusion applies to polities of different types. The book illustrates the difference between consensual and automatic modes of inclusion by considering the contrast between birthright acquisition of citizenship, which is generally automatic, and naturalization, which requires an application.

Open Access (free)
Strangers among citizens

time, 3 Fico's proclamation was unique in two respects. First, it was not the view of an extreme right-wing populist but of a declared progressive politician. 4 Second, this statement articulated a failure of inclusion as equal citizens for the most marginalised in Europe: the Romani minorities. Fico's statement points to the central tenet of this book: having equal citizenship status to the majority population has not resulted

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Open Access (free)
Reflecting on citizenship from the fringe

This book has contemplated the position of Roma as citizens in Europe. Whilst acknowledging ethnic discrimination and anti-Roma racism, as well as the socio-economic disadvantage that Roma face in some of world's most developed states, 1 it has explored the position of Romani minorities from the perspective of citizenship studies. Through a socio-legal analysis of (inter)national legislation and policies, it has focused on civic marginalisation: it has examined how states and international

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Sabotage as a citizenship enactment at the fringes

's untimely death seemed just like another episode from his film. Nevertheless, this chapter begins with the case of Mujić because it illustrates two broader issues connected to citizenship. First, it demonstrates the value of citizenship for minorities at the fringes. Building upon previous chapters in this book, this chapter claims that citizenship for marginalised minorities is often devalued or even value-less in view of its different dimensions, status and rights (Joppke, 2007 ). Citizenship status does not necessarily give rights, and having rights does not

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Will Kymlicka and Sue Donaldson

of polities with different principles of inclusion, and that the appropriate principles for inclusion at one level depend in part on the principles operative at other levels. Birthright citizenship at the national level, for example, makes possible both residency-based citizenship at the local level and derivative or nested citizenship at the federal level, just as the latter two modes of citizenship help to correct potential injustices or

in Democratic inclusion
David Owen

Rainer Bauböck's work on popular sovereignty, citizenship and the demos problem is an important touchstone for contemporary political, and especially democratic, theory. Grounded in attention to both the theoretical and empirical circumstances of individual and collective political agency, Bauböck offers a highly sophisticated and, in many ways, compelling approach to thinking through the philosophical and political

in Democratic inclusion