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Steve Garner

Introduction On 11 June 2004, the Irish electorate voted on the ‘Twenty-seventh Amendment of the Constitution Bill’ or, as it is more generally known, the Citizenship Referendum (hereafter the Referendum). On that day a large majority of those who voted – almost 80 per cent – sanctioned a withdrawal of the automatic constitutional right to citizenship for all children born in the Republic of Ireland. The Citizenship Act (2005) introduced a distinction between children born in Ireland whose parents were Irish, and those whose parents were not. This

in Defining events
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Power, resistance and identity in twenty-first-century Ireland
Series: Irish Society
Editors: Rosie Meade and Fiona Dukelow

This book analyses and critiques Irish society in the early twenty-first century, but seeks to do so by consciously avoiding myth-making and generalisation. It invites readers to revisit and rethink twelve events that span the years 2001-2009. It shows that all of these events reveal crucial intersections of structural power and resistance in contemporary Ireland. The book shows how the events carry traces of both social structure and human agency. They were shaped by overarching political, economic, social and cultural currents; but they were also responses to proposals, protests, advocacy and demands that have been articulated by a broad spectrum of social actors. The book also explores how power works ideologically and through policy instruments to support dominant models of capital accumulation. Identities are constructed at the interface between public policy, collective commitments and individual biographies. They mobilise both power and resistance, as they move beyond the realm of the personal and become focal points for debates about rights, responsibilities, resources and even the borders of the nation itself. The book suggests that conceptions of Irish identity and citizenship are being redrawn in more positive ways. Family is the cornerstone, the natural, primary and fundamental unit group of society. Marriage is the religious, cultural, commercial, and political institution that defines and embeds its values. The book presents a 2004 High Court case taken by Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan for legal recognition of their marriage as a same-sex couple, which had taken place a year previously in Canada.

Experimenting with ways to change citizen behaviour

How can governments persuade their citizens to act in socially beneficial ways? This ground-breaking book builds on the idea of 'light touch interventions' or 'nudges' proposed in Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein's highly influential Nudge (2008). While recognizing the power of this approach, the book argues that an alternative also needs to be considered: a 'think' strategy, which calls on citizens to decide their own priorities as part of a process of civic and democratic renewal. As well as setting out these divergent approaches in theory, the book provides evidence from a number of experiments to show how using 'nudge' or 'think' techniques works in practice. This second edition includes a substantial prologue by Cass Sunstein and an epilogue by Peter John, reflecting on recent developments in nudge theory and practice and introducing his radical new version of nudge, 'nudge plus'.

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Rosie Meade and Fiona Dukelow

landscape; changing conceptions of sexual identity and citizenship; the fragility of trust in church, state and public institutions; the nature of economic growth and stability; the remaking of place in the name of consumerism or ‘progress’; and the pluralised forms that resistance takes in twenty-first-century Ireland. Contributors show how the events carry traces of both social structure and human agency. They were shaped by overarching political, economic, social and cultural currents; but they were also responses to proposals, protests, advocacy and demands that have

in Defining events
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Helen Boak

Weitz has claimed that during the Weimar Republic, ‘women had greater choices in their lives than ever before’. 1 However, not all these choices were available to all women in equal measure. The revolution granted all women over the age of twenty the same political and citizenship rights as men, and women all over Germany could exercise them. 2 The Weimar Constitution in principle enshrined the equality of the sexes, but not all women could benefit from the range of opportunities, benefits and life choices which became available through its

in Women in the Weimar Republic
Alistair Cole

, citizenship, the role of France in the international arena and the nation. Even more than his predecessors, Hollande took solace in European and foreign affairs, the traditional ‘reserved domain’ of the French president (Howorth, 2013 ). Hollande grew into the role of president in part as war leader: from 2012 to 2017 France intervened in Mali and the Central African Republic and participated in air strikes in Iraq and Syria. The French intervention in Mali in 2013, to dislodge Islamic militants from the north of this strategically important African country and safeguard

in Emmanuel Macron and the two years that changed France
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Bringing it all back home
Matt Qvortrup

, 1951), p. 240. 2 David Altman , Citizenship and Contemporary Direct Democracy ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2019 ), p. 11 . 3 D. Skenderovic , “Immigration and the radical right

in Democracy on demand
Rights and responsibilities
Neil Collins and David O’Brien

The relationship between the State and the citizen in many modern societies is tutored by the notion that freedom and liberty are defined by privacy and personal autonomy. In the West, this is particularly true and is evidenced by the restrictions placed on agents of the government in their dealings with law-abiding citizens. In China, on the other hand, showing good behaviour is the sign of virtuous citizenship and reflects an optimistic Confucian view of human nature. Thus, aberrant behaviour is best addressed by society at large and watchfulness is a

in The politics of everyday China
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A ‘normal’ democracy?
Geoffrey K. Roberts

of Germans from the eastern territories administered by Poland and the USSR, then of ethnic Germans from eastern European states, the problem of the ‘guest workers’ ( Gastarbeiter ) from 1955 and then waves of asylum seekers in the 1980s presented the German political system with severe challenges. Many of those who settled in Germany had children, and these and later generations of German-born ethnic minority populations sought equal rights, including rights of citizenship, with the indigenous population. A new Citizenship Law which came into force in 2000 made it

in German politics today (third edition)
Jack Holland

citizenship, beyond the presidency of Frank Underwood; this is a show about the perils and reality of the ruthless pursuit of power at any cost. Unlike the deliberate proximity of real-life and fictional politics in House of Cards, Game of Thrones is a fantasy drama, adapted from George R. R. Martin’s rich and sprawling novels. Two story arcs unite the political and fantasy dimensions of the show. The first centres on the battles between competing dynastic families to occupy the Iron Throne and rule the kingdom of Westeros. This arc, therefore, has clear parallels with

in Fictional television and American Politics