When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss,
evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a
community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the
formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’
scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national
networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific
culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in
Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European
nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered
new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies
within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how
physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific
debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and
a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights
into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The
development of a professional academic community in the second half of the
century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of
new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society.
It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to
reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as
mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.
encourage liberal, democratic parenting practices and displace the discipline-, obedience-
and hygiene-driven approach of earlier behaviourist writers such as Truby King or John B.
Watson. In Britain, psychoanalytic ideas transformed judicial policy and social expectations
around selfhood, citizenship, mental health and democracy, as Michal Shapira has
shown. 2 British psychoanalysts such as
Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby intimately connected parenting practices to the survival of
democratic societies. In France, magazines
intellectual values that it had been in the 1880s. As state intervention in
healthcare increased, doctors became more protective of their profession’s autonomy,
privileges and social composition. Medical unions sought to restrict the numbers of medical
students by raising the educational requirements. In the 1930s, measures were taken to
exclude recent immigrants from practising law and medicine until they had held citizenship
for ten years. As Julie Fette has written, foreigners (especially Jewish ones) and women
What the NHS changed was that it removed entirely questions of payment from the
doctor–patient encounter. Moreover, it enshrined within commonly held
notions of British citizenship that this should be so.
Just as the absence of payment after 1948 was deeply imbued with
meaning, so too was the act of paying the hospital before the NHS. It was an
act firmly embedded in the social relations that had always governed medical
The dead body, the individual and the limits of medicine
subjectivity, and a
particular political ideology, a particular way of thinking about politics’,
was at the heart of Foucault’s research.
Presumed consent, ownership of the body and biological citizenship
Concerns about the implications of thinking about the body as private
property motivate Anne Phillips’s (2013) contribution to debates about
organ donation. For her, when we think about the body as our property
‘we minimise the significance of our bodies to our sense of self and encourage a mind/body dualism that makes it easier to think of bodies as marketable resources
was never re-introduced, citizens were expected to vaccinate both for the good of their own children and for the collective health of the nation as a whole. Such concepts of health citizenship were internalised as well as being imposed by government campaigning. 19 However, the risks to be managed through such behaviour changed over time. Once the state had succeeded in reducing the burden of infectious disease, it then sought to ensure that those infectious did not return. Complete eradication and its preservation required different forms of communication. The
prescriptions free at the point of use, and then coverage was only for community-based general practitioners. Of course, for these individuals, access to state-funded provision was tied to the capacity for work, which was often incompatible with rigidly timed oversight and treatment.
The institutional and cultural connections between work, healthy behaviour and citizenship also underpinned continued emphasis on self-care in the post-war period. The creation of the National Health Service in 1948 nationalised Britain's hospitals and secured universal
This edited volume offers the first comprehensive historical overview of the Belgian medical field in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Its chapters develop narratives that go beyond traditional representations of medicine in national overviews, which have focused mostly on state–profession interactions. Instead, the chapters bring more complex histories of health, care and citizenship. These new histories explore the relation between medicine and a variety of sociopolitical and cultural views and realities, treating themes such as gender, religion, disability, media, colonialism, education and social activism. The novelty of the book lies in its thorough attention to the (too often little studied) second half of the twentieth century and to the multiplicity of actors, places and media involved in the medical field. In assembling a variety of new scholarship, the book also makes a contribution to ‘decentring’ the European historiography of medicine by adding the perspective of a particular country – Belgium – to the literature.
sciences, or the confluence of biomedicalization with late twentieth-century activist policies that emphasize biodiversity and – in some form or other – biological essentialism. 11
Hereditary deafness research was never an isolated enterprise. It has occupied eugenicists and geneticists, educators and psychologists, physicians, audiologists, and public health officials, all of whom had distinct beliefs about who and what deaf people could and should be. Such beliefs reflected larger and changing ideals about citizenship, body and mind, individual and society
In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.