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Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression
Kjell M. Torbiörn

1951 by founding the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). After attempts to set up a European Defence Community and a European Political Community failed in 1954, negotiations between the ‘Six’ (belonging to the overall successful ECSC) in 1957 led to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC). However, West European integration projects and Central and Eastern European adaptation to Soviet communism were overshadowed (and intensified) by pronounced East–West tensions, as expressed in the 1950–53 Korean War, the formal division of Germany into two

in Destination Europe
Abstract only
Mervyn O’Driscoll

structures and institutions. The federalised and democratised West Germany became a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952. It entered NATO in 1955. Next Franco-​ German cooperation became the underpinning for advanced regional economic 3 Introduction 3 integration. It led to the signing of the treaties of Rome in 1957, which led to the European Economic Community (EEC) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). In his steady and single-​minded fashion Adenauer built up his Western neighbours’ trust. Cumulatively, a ‘new Europe

in Ireland, West Germany and the New Europe, 1949– 73
Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

present time. The uphill battle for a union The European Movement at its Congress in The Hague in May 1948 had called for a ‘united Europe’ in ‘economic and political union’ – but all it got was a Council of Europe. The European Coal and Steel Community had its High Authority, but the latter was never allowed to come into play, as its prime architect and first President, Jean Monnet, had intended. The European Economic Community was just that – a community of sovereign states, although equipped with a supranational, indeed an ‘anational’, Commission. The Benelux

in Destination Europe
Abstract only
Robert F. Dewey, Jr.

overwhelmingly conducted at official level. In the case of Britain’s first application, for example, Lord Windlesham observed that ‘public debate opened at the moment when the final crucial stage of decision-making closed’. On the other hand, they are also natural, given the broad patterns of Britain’s interaction with the early movement for European unity. In May 1950, the Labour Government declined involvement in discussions of the Schuman Plan, which led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The same year, Britain steered clear of talks about the

in British national identity and opposition to membership of Europe, 1961–63
Open Access (free)
The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

a common market on economic grounds. He preferred a free trade area in which German industry would flourish. It was Konrad Adenauer who persuaded Erhard to acquiesce in the arrangements for a common market. Adenauer’s main aim was to achieve a reconciliation between West Germany and its west European neighbours; France was crucial to this. Adenauer, just as with the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Defence Community, was determined to continue his west-oriented policy of embedding the Federal Republic in Western Europe. Very similar reasoning

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

’. Wherever the truth may lie, Gorbachev’s importance in saving world peace and permitting the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union will no doubt be duly recognised by posterity. 9 The term ‘the EC’, or the European Community, instead of the European Communities (The European Economic Community, the European Coal and Steel Community and Euratom), began to gain hold in the 1980s, especially as the use of a plural for European unification seemed counterproductive for that purpose and was confusing to many people. As from the Treaty on European Union in the early 1990s

in Destination Europe
Dame Janet L. Nelson

should never again be wars in Europe, and this in turn drove new and hugely constructive initiatives. A union of six European states was created, first as the European Coal and Steel Community (1951), then as the European Economic Community (1958), followed by the creation of a single market. The UK joined the EEC in 1973, and the Treaty of Maastricht (1993) created the European Union, which in succeeding decades was enlarged to a union of twenty-eight countries. The city of Aachen, a local mirror of continental trends, created the Charlemagne Prize in 1949. It was

in Debating medieval Europe
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

terminology surrounding its appellation. The term ‘European Union’ describes the general edifice of ‘unification’ among the member states, and it is also to be used whenever one is referring to the Common Foreign and Security Policy or Co-operation in the Spheres of Justice and Home Affairs. Two of the European Communities – the European Economic Community, and Euratom – continue to exist (although the relevant Treaties are revised in the Treaty on European Union). The European Coal and Steel Community disappeared in 2002 when the relevant treaty reached its fifty

in Destination Europe
Coreen Anne McGuire

for healthy British women for the first time. This study was identical to the proposal pitched to the HSE (even down to the title), indicating that the statistician’s comments had perhaps not been so readily accepted after all. The standards given in this study were replaced just four years later by the first European standardisation document pertaining to spirometry, which was issued by the European Coal and Steel Community in 1983, then updated in 1993. 83 However, by 1997, there was some concern that the impact of cohort effects (changes to people due to

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Robert Lister Nicholls

led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)’ (Dewey, 2009 : 3). It is to some extent unsurprising that in the late 1940s and early 1950s the Labour government was reluctant to become involved in Europe given that the strength of the British economy was ‘greatly superior to those of most of the Continent’ (Kitzinger, 1973 : 24). Furthermore, up to 1951, the Labour government was committed to setting up a welfare state in Britain. The attitude demonstrated by both major political parties therefore helps understand why the political debates

in The British political elite and Europe, 1959–1984