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Bogdan Popa

The third chapter shifts from an investigation of eastern European Marxist materials to analyze the emergence of the concept of gender in US studies of sexuality. I show that the birth of gender is deeply entrenched in the anti-communist epistemology of the USA during the Cold War. I start from the premise that the birth of gender is historically connected

in De-centering queer theory
Bogdan Popa

Chapter 4 investigates the shift from a Cold War gender, as Money formulated it, to a new post-Cold War gender, which drew its inspiration from a Foucauldian-inspired research on power and sexuality. I continue not only to analyze the erasure of Marxist theory from theories of sexuality, but also to insist on historicizing this process both

in De-centering queer theory
Communist sexuality in the flow during and after the Cold War
Author: Bogdan Popa

"An influential concept in North American queer studies, gender has been forged as part of the anti-communist Cold War and became one of its key analytics at the beginning of the 1990s. In tracing the conceptual history of gender, this book de-centers queer studies and provides an innovative approach by excavating a rival communist sexuality during the Cold War. As opposed to a theory of gender, eastern European Marxism generated a revolutionary imagination that had at its core a dialectical understanding of bodies and sexual acts. This communist understanding of sexuality centered on a productive body that was better able to feel and live than its capitalist counterpart.

The book is original not only because it analyzes competitive models of Cold War sexuality, but also because it inserts historical materialism into queer theory. By drawing on materials from socialist theory, queer studies and communist films, it moves from the 1920s to the 1950s to the 1990s to understand the emergence of contemporary sexual categories. It traces the rise of gender and queer by studying the shared and complicated history of communist history and queer theory. It also provides a new dialectical method by juxtaposing socialist theory and films with queer anti-racist theory. In doing so, it offers a sensuous materiality that transforms the epistemology of a queer of color analytic. The book is an essential contribution to a scholarship that interrogates queer liberalism and new formations of anti-gender ideology.

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How Britain lives with the Bomb
Author: Andrew Corbett

An ex-Trident submarine captain considers the evolution of UK nuclear deterrence policy and the implications of a previously unacknowledged, enduring aversion to military strategies that threaten civilian casualties. This book draws on extensive archival research to provide a uniquely concise synthesis of factors affecting British nuclear policy decision-making, and draws parallels between government debates about reprisals for First World War Zeppelin raids on London, the strategic bombing raids of the Second World War and the development of the nuclear deterrent to continuous at-sea deterrence, through the end of the Cold War and the announcement of the Dreadnought programme. It develops the idea that, in a supreme emergency, a breach of otherwise inviolable moral rules might be excused, but never justified, in order to prevent a greater moral catastrophe; and it explores the related ethical concept of dirty hands – when a moral actor faces a choice between two inevitable actions, mutually exclusive but both reprehensible. It concludes that, amongst all the technical factors, government aversion to be seen to condone civilian casualties has inhibited government engagement with the public on deterrence strategy since 1915 and, uniquely among nuclear weapon states, successive British governments have been coy about discussing nuclear deterrence policy publicly because they feared to expose the complexity of the moral reasoning behind the policy, a reticence exacerbated by the tendency of policy and media investigation to be reduced to simplistic soundbites.

‘Showered with kindness?’
Author: Heike Wieters

This book provides a historical account of the NGO Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe (CARE) as one of the largest humanitarian NGOs worldwide from 1945 to 1980. Readers interested in international relations and humanitarian hunger prevention are provided with fascinating insights into the economic and business related aspects of Western non-governmental politics, fundraising and philanthropic giving in this field. The book also offers rich empirical material on the political implications of private and governmental international aid in a world marked by the order of the Cold War, and decolonialization processes. It elaborates the struggle of so called "Third World Countries" to catch up with modern Western consumer societies. In order to do justice to CARE's growing dimensions and to try to make sense of the various challenges arising from international operations, the book contains five main chapters on CARE's organizational development, with three case studies. It tells CARE's story on two different yet connected levels. First, it tells the story as a history of individuals and their interactions, conflicts, initiatives, and alliances within CARE and second as an organizational history focusing on institutional networks, CARE's role in international diplomacy. By the start of the 1960s CARE's strategically planned transformation into a development-oriented agency was in full swing. With United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Food for Peace, and the Peace Corps, several new government agencies in the development assistance sector were founded that offered potential junctions and opportunities for cooperation for CARE and the voluntary agencies in general.

Open Access (free)
Interrogating civilisational analysis in a global age

Contemporary civilisational analysis has emerged in the post-Cold War period as a forming but already controversial field of scholarship. This book focuses on the scholarship produced in this field since the 1970s. It begins with anthropological axioms posited by Ibn Khaldun, Simon Bolivar and George Pachymeres. Three conceptual images of civilisations are prominent in the field. First, civilisations are conceived as socio-cultural units, entities or blocs in an 'integrationist' image. They emerge out of long-term uneven historical processes. Finally, in a 'relational' image civilisations are believed to gain definition and institute developmental patterns through inter-societal and inter-cultural encounters. The book traces the history of semantic developments of the notions of 'civilisation' and 'civilisations' coextensive with the expansion of Europe's empires and consubstantial with colonialism. Early modernities are more important in the long formation of capitalism. Outlining the conceptual framework of inter-civilisational engagement, the book analytically plots the ties instituted by human imaginaries across four dimensions of inter-civilisational engagement. It also interrogates the relationship between oceans, seas and civilisations. Oceanian civilisation exhibits patterns of deep engagement and connection. Though damaged, Pacific cultures have invoked their own counter-imaginary in closer proximity to past islander experiences. Collective memory provides resources for coping with critical issues. The book also explores Latin American and Japanese experiences that shed light on the engagement of civilisations, applying the model of inter-civilisational engagement to modern perspectives in culture and the arts, politics, theology and political economy.

Dimitris Dalakoglou

Albanians. These are the same Albanians who build houses for Greeks, in Greece, a country where the majority of construction workers are Albanian. In this book, roads and migrants’ houses built in their home country emerge as different parts of the same process. In fact, there is the paradox of an alienating cross-border highway that is being dealienated within the affective and familiar sphere of the home. The long post-cold war period This book starts with the story of a boat full of Albanian migrants that sank after its collision with a vessel of the Italian Navy which

in The road
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Bogdan Popa

conceived as part of a similar alliance to disrupt racial capitalism in the United States. To show why trans studies need a Marxist analytic, this chapter first illuminates the connections between a widespread US anti-communist project and anti-trans politics. If one of the outcomes of the Cold War was to set Marxism and trans politics in conflict, a historical method reveals a shared

in De-centering queer theory
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The United States, the two Chinas and the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics
Rachel Vaughan

The US, the two Chinas and the 1960 Winter Olympics 185 10 ‘Chinese rings’: the United States, the two Chinas and the 1960 Squaw Valley Winter Olympics Rachel Vaughan It is only relatively recently that scholars have begun to recognise the centrality of sport to the public diplomacy and soft power strategies of governments within the international arena.1 To a degree, this was partly the reluctance of Western governments to acknowledge the role of sport within their diplomatic arsenal. In contrast, the West’s Cold War adversary, the Soviet Union, began to

in Sport and diplomacy
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Bogdan Popa

unconscious, as Jean Laplanche explained Marr’s position, but shows how unconscious elements can serve as catalysts for anti-capitalist actions. 2 How does Marr’s historical materialism bring a new understanding of the unconscious to queer theory? Queer theory and Soviet Marxism have been kept apart, particularly in their conceptualization of psychological concepts. Given the Cold War, a

in De-centering queer theory