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Stanley R. Sloan

most. In this mix of continuity and change, the bargain has constantly evolved. More dramatic change came after the Cold War ended, but even in the 35 years between 1954 and 1989, a number of things changed. The allies, acting unilaterally in some cases and in concert in others, made conscious changes in and amendments to the bargain. Some of these changes were inspired by developments over which the allies had little control (such as the Soviet Union’s drive toward nuclear parity with the United States, calling into question NATO’s nuclear strategy), while

in Defense of the West (second edition)
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

Dean Acheson entitled his memoirs Present at the Creation. Acheson argued that a new world order was created during the few, eventful years when he was US Secretary of State, between 1949 and 1953. His memoirs describe the consolidation of the bipolar, Cold War world – the world which is also presented in this chapter. The chapter aims to show how the Western Bloc, presided over by the USA, became pitted against the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the USSR. It records the formation and consolidation of the bipolar rivalry that dominated world affairs for

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
Stanley R. Sloan

When, in sudden historical succession, the Berlin Wall was breached, communist regimes were swept from office throughout Eastern Europe, the Warsaw Pact was dissolved, and the Soviet Union disintegrated, the NATO allies could not believe their good fortune. These events raised concerns in Washington and in West European capitals about potential instability growing out of so much change in such a short time. But a 40-year struggle had been resolved in their favor without a shot fired in anger. The Cold War had never turned hot, deterrence had worked, and the

in Defense of the West (second edition)
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A ‘new humanitarianism’?
Silvia Salvatici

eastern European regimes and led to the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the Soviet Union broke off sending any sort of aid to Ethiopia. When the anti-Menghistu troops, brought together in the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front, marched on Addis Ababa the Soviet Union did not intervene. The end of the Cold War not only modified the political context in which the famine had developed – the famine that had led to the largest ever mobilisation in the history of humanitarianism – but it also so deeply influenced the structure of international aid as a

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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The end of International Relations?
Torbjørn L. Knutsen

seek to identify longer trend lines. Most of all, it will search for ideational trends. Whereas the previous chapter discussed the post-Cold War world with an emphasis on traditional issues of material interests and capabilities of power, this chapter will focus on the ideational changes that followed the unexpected end of the Cold War. The chapter will begin by exploring the consequences of the Soviet collapse. It will first note its impact on neighbouring countries and also trace some of its effects on regions farther afield. 1 The chapter will then

in A history of International Relations theory (third edition)
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Silvia Salvatici

UN doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), which reiterated the obligations of the international community in cases of mass violations of human rights within individual states, 4 causing mixed reactions. What further attracted my attention from the beginning in this discussion led by scholars and journalists was the reflection on the consequences that the establishment of humanitarian interventions, after the end of the Cold War, had had on the way of operating international aid. The most critical commentators have underlined how some humanitarian

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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Military operations
Michael Clarke

T HE Cold War ended dramatically on 26 December 1991 when the collapsed Soviet Union dissolved itself. Ironically, in late 1991 British forces were just returning from the war to help liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, where they had fought with their airpower and heavy metal very much in Cold War style. It was as if anti-Soviet battle routines had been transposed out of NATO and tested by the allies in the open territory around Basra. Britain created a full division for the operation and

in The challenge of defending Britain
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England and the defence of British sovereignty
Ben Wellings

Europe, the Anglosphere and, in this case, local neighbourhood. The memory of twentieth century conflict is the ‘third pillar’ on which Anglosphere thinking rests and a major point of intersection between Englishness and Euroscepticism, but one that again occludes England. It positions Anglosphere countries on the side of ‘right’ in the pivotal conflict of the twentieth century against Nazism, totalitarianism and militarism; a conflict remembered as a straightforward contest between good and evil compared to the more complicated memories of conflicts of the Cold War

in English nationalism, Brexit and the Anglosphere
Geoffrey K. Roberts

Of course, many factors, both internal to Germany and external (see Chapters 10 , 11 ) have influenced the development of the political system of the Federal Republic. Together with the prior-history and history of the Federal Republic ( Chapter 1 ), and the process of reunification ( Chapter 2 ), the most important have been the Basic Law itself, providing a constitutional basis for the political system, and the Federal Constitutional Court, charged with the task of interpreting that Basic Law. The economy, the division of Germany and the ‘cold war’ and the

in German politics today (third edition)
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transitions and challenges
Stanley R. Sloan

Cold War opened with revolutionary changes in Europe that left the transatlantic allies with historic choices about how to organize European security after one “partner” in the Cold War two-bloc system, the Warsaw Pact, and its leading power—the Soviet Union—had been disbanded. Big questions were posed by the fact that new democratic governments in former Warsaw Pact nations wanted to join NATO and the European Union while Russia began a transition away from the Soviet system and into a period of political, financial and economic chaos. The allies were also

in Defense of the West (second edition)