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Author: Vanessa Heggie

Athletes start the century as normal, healthy citizens, and end up as potentially unhealthy physiological 'freaks', while the general public are increasingly urged to do more exercise and play more sports. This book offers a comprehensive study, and social history, of the development of sports medicine in Britain, as practiced by British doctors and on British athletes in national and international settings. It describes how and why, in Britain, medicine applied to sport became first an area of expertise known as sports medicine, and then a formal medical specialty: Sport and Exercise Medicine. In the late nineteenth century, vigorous exercise was an acceptable, probably necessary, part of the moderate healthy lifestyle for the normal, healthy man. Consequently sports medicine was part and parcel of normal medical treatment, distinguishable only through its location or through its patient history. There was no wide-spread de facto scepticism about the value of vigorous exercise among physicians and scientists. The normality of the young male athlete is reconsidered between 1928 and 1952. At the end of the period, the athlete becomes an abnormal or supernormal human being who demands specialist medical interventions. The formation and work of British Association of Sport and (Exercise) Medicine, the Institute of Sports Medicine, the Sports Council, and the British Olympic Association's Medical Committee is discussed. The book finally discusses fitness. Normal life, war, elite competition gives us an insight into how athletic bodies are conceptualised, and how sports medicine has formed and reformed over a century.

Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

during the early Cold War? Was there something particular about Eastern European states that made this region especially fitting or receptive to mass trials and vaccination campaigns that then had a global effect? This chapter aims to get to the heart of this matter by examining Eastern European experiences with polio in the 1950s and early 1960s. Two states played a particularly important part in the history of the Sabin

in The politics of vaccination
Abstract only
Richard Bates

follows a direction set by three important recent works on psychoanalysis, and its relationship to broader social, political and cultural histories, by Dagmar Herzog, Michal Shapira and Camille Robcis, respectively. Herzog’s Cold War Freud (2017) emphasises the plasticity and multiplicity of Cold War-era psychoanalysis, showing how, while turning inwards and towards sexual conservatism in the postwar United States, it enjoyed a ‘second golden age’ in Europe, impacting on a range of fields from the German legal approach to

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

The years between 1939 and 1953 were ones of enormous upheaval in France. Following the destructive and divisive experience of war, occupation and liberation, by the early 1950s the country was rapidly modernising its economy, while caught up in Cold War geopolitics and fighting to retain its empire. Women had become full citizens, a baby boom was under way and the defeat and moral debasement of the Vichy regime had left the extreme Right discredited. While the 1950s remained an age of social conservatism, signs

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958
Paul Greenough

1 The uneasy politics of epidemic aid: the CDC's mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958 Paul Greenough Epidemic outbreaks, political struggle, civil society response Historians warn against narratives in which actors are spared the dilemmas of chance and choice. No doubt prolepsis, anachronism and teleology should be avoided, but I find it difficult to tell a story

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

twenty-first-century political milestones like colonial nationalism, decolonisation, the Cold War, the rise of economic neo-liberalism and recent geo-political shifts. This collection gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Five of the chapters are set in the last fifty years. 3 Four others pay particular attention to the development and

in The politics of vaccination
Claire Beaudevin, Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Christoph Gradmann, Anne M. Lovell, and Laurent Pordié

, one may recall the classic 2006 paper by Brown, Cueto and Fee from their project on the history of the World Health Organization (WHO) (Brown et al., 2006 ). In their paper global health is – to a large extent – a political phenomenon placed in the context of geopolitics, development strategies and rivalry between international organizations. Focusing on the WHO and the United Nations (UN) system of intergovernmental democracy, they point to the intimate relationship that international public health maintained with the Cold War. Other authors like Birn ( 2009

in Global health and the new world order
Guerrilla nursing with the Friends Ambulance Unit, 1946–48
Susan Armstrong-Reid

Honan, were increasingly held hostage by events beyond its control that made foreigners unwelcome and funding impossible. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China. The dictums of the Cold War shifted Western aid priorities to contain Communism. The Convoy reluctantly closed its doors in 1951. Recasting the stories of the China Convoy’s nurses Apt foils, Hughes and Stanley underline the entanglements of nursing as it was imagined and practised in war-torn China through this 209 Susan Armstrong-Reid period. Recovering their

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

inevitable about the negative political, media and public attention directed towards the various supply crises across the 1950s. Delays in vaccination represented wider concerns, particularly among the public, with governmental administration than simply the immediate benefits to direct beneficiaries. 2 This chapter begins by outlining the development of the polio vaccine up to the mid-1950s. This was a result of international cooperation and charitable donations, resulting in one of the iconic scientific discoveries of the early Cold War era. However

in Vaccinating Britain
Psychogenetic counselling at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1955–1969
Marion Andrea Schmidt

access to health care services. Borrowing equally from Cold War rhetoric and the language of civil rights movements, NYSPI psychiatrists and geneticists portrayed themselves as experts who furthered democratic ideals by offering services to ‘neglected’ minorities. This made eugenic thought appear oddly compatible with minority activism. Franz Kallmann: from sterilizing the ‘feeble-minded’ to counselling the deaf Jewish-born, German-American Franz Kallmann remains one of the most controversial figures in the history of genetics and psychiatry. Depending

in Eradicating deafness?