In the early years of the Norwegian HIV/AIDS epidemic, three main groups were
affected: gay and bisexual men, drug users, and people with haemophilia.
However, another group played a dominant role in the political, medical, and
public discourse: sex workers. This chapter analyses the early political and
medical responses to the epidemic, particularly the position of sex workers,
the limits of inclusion in the ‘Norwegian model’, and the impact of the
epidemic on sex worker activism.
Using media sources, public and private archives, and oral interviews with sex workers, activists, social workers, and civil servants, this chapter explores how different representations of 'the prostitute' were constructed and mobilised. From the mid-1980s, doctors, public health researchers, and the media constructed sex workers as a potential reservoir for HIV infection. Gay activists were gradually recognised as 'experts' by authorities and medical professionals, while it was much more difficult for sex workers to make their voices heard. This had historical reasons because prostitution was generally recognised as a social problem on different levels of society: by politicians, by the police, by social workers, by feminist groups, and in the media. This chapter examines the remarkable story of a creative group of people in the health authorities who approached sex workers as experts, hiring two women for outreach HIV prevention work. The sex workers reported back to the authorities, who thus had first-hand knowledge about a community which otherwise was hard to reach. This outreach work spurred sex worker activism and led to the establishment of the first Norwegian sex worker activist organisation (PION) in 1990. However, the Norwegian story shows how much more difficult it has been for sex workers to get a seat at the table in political decisions than other marginalised groups.
6 ). Oury and Guattari turned La Borde into a humane, egalitarian community, in deliberate contrast to the repressive, carceral atmosphere of most asylums. La Borde’s nurses did not wear white smocks, but dressed indistinguishably from the patients. Spaces were permeable and patients free to move around. Patients ran group therapy sessions and creative projects themselves, and were brought into the centre’s decision-making processes. Guattari, in charge of work schedules, constantly assigned staff to work outside
importance of consulting psychological experts on such issues. At one point, Pére Larère cited a 1929 papal encyclical on education, which, he claimed, ‘expressly asked Christian parents to undertake [sexual] education in good time … I turn to Doctor Dolto-Marette so that she can tell us at what age we can begin that education.’ 53 This was a creative reading of Pius XI’s text, which in fact condemned ‘the error of those who with dangerous assurance and under an ugly term propagate a so-called sex-education, falsely imagining they
-economy of Hinduism are central to this conversation. What is happening through this novel branding of ‘archaic modernity’? When science, religion, and modernity are orchestrated in a seamless choreography, who profits in this marketplace of values, goods, and bodies? Hinduism serves many purposes and is bestowed with varied possibilities as religion, civilisation, political-economy, and morality structure. Tulasi Srinivas, for example, invokes the term ‘experimental Hinduism’ to write about ‘a whole world of iterative, strategic, and creative improvisations within and
scandal’, she shifts the common perception of gossip as destructive and uncaring to underline its creative and bonding qualities. Patricia Meyer Spacks quotes from Jane Austen's last completed novel, Persuasion , to illustrate the ways in which gossip fosters intimacy, and establishes ‘a mode not of domination but of linkage’. 2 Needless to say, this pleasurable gossip happens in Bath. The gossiping skills under study belong to Nurse Rooke, a character in Persuasion already mentioned in relation to
contexts such as The Cheltenham guide; or, Memoirs of the B-n-r-d family continued , another example of the ongoing cultural dialogue between Bath and other spas. 95 The canonical eighteenth-century novels dealing with British spas in the second part of the eighteenth century should be placed in this wider context of spa literature. Smollett's Humphry Clinker , Austen's Persuasion and Northanger Abbey , and Burney's Evelina stem out of a wider culture of playful and creative
the pharmacopoeia of the time, often prescribed for chronic diseases and complex symptoms, and sometimes for desperate cases. Taking the medical aspect of spas at face value is essential to understand the complexity of watering places, their development and their role in the culture of the times. Otherwise, the easy and rather monolithic narrative of ‘the commercialisation of leisure’ takes over, and the long and difficult history of sick bodies, water-drinking, bathing and creative modes of care gets swallowed into a blurred vision of what is too often reduced to
that the poor, who would ‘come flocking’ to take the waters for their health, would have to be kept apart from the bon ton , who happened to come for the same reason, so that the reputation of the spa would be maintained. I will explore, at the end of this chapter, the ways in which the juxtaposition of the two was dealt with and represented in contemporary literature. High stakes In the creative 1732 issue of The Scarborough Miscellany , a familiar reference at this stage, a mock-heroic poem entitled
. Resisters could thus be sheltered by sympathetic factory managers. Luc-André Brunet details creative measures taken by steel bosses to protect underemployed workers in Forging Europe: Industrial Organisation in France, 1940–1952 (London: Palgrave, 2017). 78 Suzanne Marette to Dolto, 12 August 1943, Une vie de correspondances , pp. 113–14, and n. 22. 79 Françoise Dolto’s 1988 preface to Boris Dolto, Le Corps entre les mains (1976) (Paris: Vuibert, 2006
Parkinson's Disease – evident in other manifestations of neurology 11 – this chapter also explores an alternative, and equally ancient, narrative of balance about the dualism of creative genius. Roy Porter used William Blake's lament about the ‘mind forg'd manacles’ of the creative imagination to epitomise the eighteenth-century European Enlightenment's mirror of reason and madness. 12 My task here is to examine how balancing drug reception in the brain is bound to the