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Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

6 Creative survival as subversion I Solidarities and creative tactics against ‘conditions of death’1 n the DRC, the exercise and consolidation of state authority does not necessarily imply social transformation or a real commitment of the state to impose itself but, rather, the management of state absences and state presences through a plurality of authorities. Still, the patterns of coercion and extraction that have followed from the 20 years of conflict, with the different state-making and peacebuilding processes, determine the conditions for the

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

one. The hidden transcript runs through Mai Mai militias, justifications for tax evasion and in the undertaking of a myriad of creative survival strategies. Underlying these tactics is a process of de-legitimisation, of advancing alternative agendas and raising political aspirations. These discourses and the political alternatives embedded within them are realised not just in mechanisms of critique and the voicing of aspirations, but in the processes of denial and mitigation undertaken for navigating a context of violence and poverty. 124 Claims to authority and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

also take the form of subversion, including redefining the ideals 183 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making embedded in the peacebuilding discourse, using armed groups to protect oneself or mitigating the dominating effects of military rule through negotiation and creative survival. The Scottian claim-regarding practices address elite claims directly. The Certeaunian ‘self-regarding’ practices identify acts that deny or mitigate elite claims indirectly. These acts have the self (individual or collective) at the centre of the action. By using or

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Open Access (free)
Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

by rural communities to provide security; and creative survival practices that range from tax evasion to land reappropriation and the provision of all sorts of social services. Scott has often been criticised on the grounds that intentions are ungraspable, that resistance acts are too ambiguous and ambivalent to serve as a category of analysis and that he excessively simplifies social reality (Hibou 2011a: Ch. 1; Mbembe 2001: 103–8; Ortner 1995; Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). In response to these critiques, which have also concluded that resistance does not exist or is

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

resonates with Africanist critiques seen above (Hibou 2011a; Mbembe 2001: Ch. 3; Mbembe in Weaver Shipley 2010: 666). Because resistance, and especially its intentions, is ambiguous, Ortner proposes to 64 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance account for the multiple ways in which practices can be ‘creative and transformative’, yet be the result of contradictory and mixed intentions (1995: 190–1). By this account, intentions may not be central and may provide a richer account of other aspects in everyday human relations, but doing away with intention undermines

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

. Likewise, we believe these themes deserve more investigation in the service of peacebuilding, so we aim to begin that journey in this chapter. To date, practitioner self-care is underexplored in Peace and Conflict Studies, even though peacebuilders themselves could benefit immensely from further enquiry in this area, which could in turn strengthen the depth and quality of their work as facilitators for peace. Indeed, the research for this book has suggested that, through dance and creative movement, participants had an opportunity to experience themselves in a way that

in Dancing through the dissonance
Abstract only
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

As a musician who works for peace, ‘unity’ holds less interest for me than ‘harmony.’ Unity is when we all sing the same note. Harmony is when we sing different notes, and they are beautiful together. David Lamotte, musician and peace activist This quote from David Lamotte points to important aesthetic and creative considerations. It also highlights some

in Dancing through the dissonance
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

polarity; the fundamental belief in and pursuit of the creative act; and the acceptance of the inherent risk of stepping into the mystery of the unknown that lies beyond the far too familiar landscape of violence. 5 We share his belief that the wellspring of peacebuilding rests in the moral imagination and his acknowledgement that such imagination is difficult and messy, but also necessary for

in Dancing through the dissonance
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

and mirroring in particular can also have their challenges or limits, which we also explore. This chapter makes a few key points: (a) nonviolent engagement with, and expression of, emotions are vital to peacebuilding; (b) empathy can play an important role in emotional peacebuilding; and finally, (c) dance and creative movement activities, such as the use of mirroring, when done reflectively, can be valuable practices for developing empathy and supporting peacebuilding. Emotions, dance and the politics of building peace

in Dancing through the dissonance
Abstract only
Anca Mihaela Pusca

chapter clearly suggested that a collective self-recognition of the trauma imposed by the transition as well as an acknowledgement of the “sacrifice” would do more good than forcing an overly positive image of it. Using Walter Benjamin’s creative engagements with the concept of shock, the chapter was also able to draw up some possible explanations for the relationship between intense feelings of nostalgia—in situations where these would not necessarily be warranted—and periods of transition and social change. Under particular circumstances, shock becomes much more than

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment