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Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Sergio Britto Garcia, Martin Evison, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Iara Xavier Pereira, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Truth commissions are widely recognised tools used in negotiation following political repression. Their work may be underpinned by formal scientific investigation of human remains. This paper presents an analysis of the role of forensic investigations in the transition to democracy following the Brazilian military governments of 1964–85. It considers practices during the dictatorship and in the period following, making reference to analyses of truth commission work in jurisdictions other than Brazil, including those in which the investigation of clandestine burials has taken place. Attempts to conceal the fate of victims during the dictatorship, and the attempts of democratic governments to investigate them are described. Despite various initiatives since the end of the military government, many victims remain unidentified. In Brazil, as elsewhere, forensic investigations are susceptible to political and social influences, leading to a situation in which relatives struggle to obtain meaningful restitution and have little trust in the transitional justice process.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

“updated” to the latest version – click here to download the new 2.0! A number of intangible and material innovations serve as icons of progress. The intangible icons of progress are such liberal notions as reason, freedom, democracy, and equality, notions with a long history in which philosophers and politicians are agents. They gain new relevance with the Enlightenment starting in the seventeenth century, see a political breakthrough at the time of the American and French Revolutions at the end of the eighteenth century, and are, in some cases, affirmed as human

in Heritopia
Remaking the ethnographic museum in the global contemporary
Viv Golding and Wayne Modest

of Prejudice, they argue that increasing anxieties about the future of the nation state across Europe are based on the presumed vulnerabilities of an imagined autochthonous population, as the welfare state is dismantled. The feared loss of employment or housing, for example, is blamed on an often racialised ‘Other’ who is believed to be ‘swamping’ European cities. Achille Mbembe has described the moment as the death of humanism (see Sandahl, Chapter 5 above). This death, he suggests, is characterised by an anti-humanist stance that is threatening democracy. At this

in Curatopia
Jes Wienberg

! Democracy and dialogue! Justifications may also be given in formal decisions about archaeological investigations or the protection of buildings, and may then include references to legislation or conventions. But where the first and canonical culture of heritage is geared to expressing justifications using rhetoric, arguments, or statutory provisions, the second and critical culture of heritage wants to put in question marks as an expression of scepticism. There is a long tradition of reflecting on what history is, can be, or should be, on the development of history, and

in Heritopia
Catherine J. Frieman

/medieval era Modern Civilization Telegraph, power loom, steam engines, printing, gunpowder, photography, science democracy Post-medieval era The conception of linear progress encapsulated in these early evolutionary models – that is, that successful innovations are more fit than those they replace and that technological change is a product of conscious experimentation aimed at improving functionality – is still the guiding principle behind most models of innovation (see Pfaffenberger 1992 ). Although rigid, unilinear evolutionary modeling ceased to dominate the

in An archaeology of innovation
Jes Wienberg

both experts and the general public. And both cases involve a democratic process – in the case of World Heritage representative democracy and in the case of New7Wonders direct democracy, at any rate in choosing between the finalists. If inflation in heritage and World Heritage is a problem, UNESCO can put a ceiling on how many can be inscribed on the list. UNESCO can simply put a stop to more World Heritage sites – or not list any new ones unless old ones are removed – in brief, by prioritising. But at the moment there is no formal limit to the total number of

in Heritopia
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

, democracy, multiplicity, and sustainable development, all meant in a favourable sense. We encounter the first culture in general works about institutions, specialist disciplines, and heritage, in which it is possible to follow developments from the very first examples of history writing, archaeological excavations, or protection up to research, management, and communication in our own age. The past, with its texts, images, objects, monuments, and landscapes, has been threatened through the ages by silence, oblivion, and destruction; but it can and should be salvaged for

in Heritopia
Open Access (free)
Jes Wienberg

concept is constantly becoming relevant to new areas or seeping into closely related fields: heritage is combined with such words as archaeology, art, canon, church, colonialism, commercialism, conservation, criminality, democracy, development, development-assistance policy, economics, education, environment, ethics, forests, future, globalisation, politics of memory, history, human rights, identity, identity policy, landscape, legislation, management, memory, modernity(!), museums, nationalism, peace-building, politics, quality of life, religion, religious services

in Heritopia