This article examines the ways in which missing persons have been dealt with, mainly in
the former Yugoslavia, to show how the huge advances made in the search for, recovery and
identification of those who disappeared is positively impacting on the ability of families
to find their loved ones. The article surveys the advances made in dealing with the
missing on a range of fronts, including the technical and forensic capacities. It examines
some of the other developments that have occurred around the world with regard to the
search for, recovery and identification of people and makes recommendations on how to make
improvements to ensure that the rights of families around the world, as well as a range of
other human rights, including truth and justice, are enhanced.
This article will describe the contemporary scientific techniques used to excavate and
identify the dead bodies of disappeared detainees from the Uruguayan dictatorship. It will
highlight the developments that have led to increased success by forensic anthropologists
and archaeologists in uncovering human remains, as well as their effects, both social and
political, on promoting the right to the truth and mechanisms of transitional justice.
This article describes the brutalisation of the bodies of Tutsi and Jewish victims in
1994 and during the Second World War, respectively, and contrasts the procedures adopted
by killers to understand what these deadly practices say about the imaginaries at work in
Rwanda and Poland. Dealing with the infernalisation of the body, which eventually becomes
a form of physical control, this comparative work examines the development of groups and
communities of killers in their particular social and historical context. Different
sources are used, such as academic works, reports from victims organisations and
non-governmental organisations, books, testimonies and film documentaries.
Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Evison, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura, Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício
Exhumation may be defined as the legally sanctioned excavation and recovery of the
remains of lawfully buried or – occasionally – cremated individuals, as distinct from
forensic excavations of clandestinely buried remains conducted as part of a criminal
investigation and from unlawful disinterment of human remains, commonly referred to as
bodysnatching. The aim of this article is to review the role of exhumation – so defined –
in the activities of CEMEL, the Medico-Legal Centre of the Ribeirão Preto Medical
School-University of São Paulo, in international, regional and local collaborations.
Exhumations form part of routine forensic anthropology casework; scientific research in
physical and forensic anthropology; and forensic casework conducted in collaboration with
the Brazilian Federal Police; and are carried out as part of humanitarian investigations
into deaths associated with the civil–military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. This article
aims to offer a non-technical summary – with reference to international comparative
information – of the role of exhumation in investigative and scientific work and to
discuss developments in their historical and political context.
also to fellow curators in
neighbouring galleries and fellow scientists elsewhere in the University. These contexts set the Museum’s objects not in a rigid frame of meaning but rather within a
flexible system of intellectual and physical processes enacted on the individual, local
and international level.
In tracing these meanings and processes the principal intention of the first part
of this book was to understand the construction and development of disciplines
and the boundaries between them. We saw how a collection based on palaeontology expanded and diversified
in the first half of the book, which looks at the history of the Manchester Museum
through disciplinary construction and development. For the disciplines that we
take for granted as units of knowledge production in Western academia are not
stable, coherent and eternal, but rather they are fluid, contingent groupings.9 They
have commonly been studied as conceptual and political enterprises, but they are
also material entities. As Simon Knell writes, ‘Natural scientists, archaeologists and
art historians, in some respects, share a similar engagement with
What is the future of curatorial practice? How can the relationships between Indigenous people in the Pacific, collections in Euro-American institutions and curatorial knowledge in museums globally be (re)conceptualised in reciprocal and symmetrical ways? Is there an ideal model, a ‘curatopia’, whether in the form of a utopia or dystopia, which can enable the reinvention of ethnographic museums and address their difficult colonial legacies? This volume addresses these questions by considering the current state of the play in curatorial practice, reviewing the different models and approaches operating in different museums, galleries and cultural organisations around the world, and debating the emerging concerns, challenges and opportunities. The subject areas range over native and tribal cultures, anthropology, art, history, migration and settler culture, among others. Topics covered include: contemporary curatorial theory, new museum trends, models and paradigms, the state of research and scholarship, the impact of new media and current issues such as curatorial leadership, collecting and collection access and use, exhibition development and community engagement. The volume is international in scope and covers three broad regions – Europe, North America and the Pacific. The contributors are leading and emerging scholars and practitioners in their respective fields, all of whom have worked in and with universities and museums, and are therefore perfectly placed to reshape the dialogue between academia and the professional museum world.
At the turn of the nineteenth century, museums in Europe and North America were at their largest and most powerful. New buildings were bigger; objects flooded into them, and more people visited them than ever before. The Manchester Museum is an ideal candidate for understanding cultures of display in twentieth-century Britain. It is a treasure trove of some four million priceless objects that are irreplaceable and unique. Like many large European collections, the origins of the Manchester Museum are to be found in a private cabinet: that of John Leigh Philips. This book traces the fate of his cabinet from his death in 1814. The establishment of the Manchester Natural History Society (MNHS) allowed naturalists to carve out a space in Manchester's cultural landscape. The Manchester Museum's development was profoundly affected by the history of the University in which it operated. In January 1868, the Natural History Society formally dissolved, and an interim commission took control of its collections; the Manchester Geological Society transferred its collections the following year. The new collection was to be purely scientific, comprising geology, zoology and botany, with no place for some of the more exotic specimens of the Society. The objects in the collection became part of Manchester's civic identity, bringing with them traces of science, empire and the exotic. Other museological changes were afoot in the 1990s. Natural history collections became key sites for public engagement with environmental issues and biodiversity and more recently as sites for exhibiting art.
This book is the first monograph-length investigation of innovation and the innovation process from an archaeological perspective. We live in a world where innovation, innovativeness, creativity, and invention are almost laughably over-used buzzwords. Yet comparatively little research has been carried out on the long-term history of innovation beyond and before the Industrial Revolution. This monograph offers both a response and a sort of answer to the wider trans-disciplinary dialogue on innovation, invention, and technological and social change. The idea of innovation that permeates our popular media and our political and scientific discourse is set against the long-term perspective that only archaeology can offer in dialogue with a range of social theory about the development of new technologies and social structures. The book offers a new version of the story of human inventiveness from our earliest hominin ancestors to the present day. In doing so, it challenges the contemporary lionization of disruptive technologies, while also setting the post-Industrial-Revolution innovation boom into a deeper temporal and wider cultural context. It argues that the present narrow focus on pushing the adoption of technical innovations ignores the complex interplay of social, technological, and environmental systems that underlies truly innovative societies; the inherent connections between new technologies, technologists, and social structure that give them meaning and make them valuable; and the significance and value of conservative social practices that lead to the frequent rejection of innovations.
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to
the case of Serbian archaeology
better comprehend the cultural history school in Serbian archaeology. In doing so, I argue that the school overcame its dogmatic character in the local archaeological community to develop a more democratic
academic function. I selected the history of Serbian archaeology as it is a
field unique to itself, owing to the extreme difficulty of integrating events
affecting Serbian archaeologists with the narrative of the development of
European archaeology as a whole. The history of Serbian archaeology
has been subject to numerous influences and various shifts in thought