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Open Access (free)
Andrew Bowie

to modernity which can steer a course between the increasingly powerful claims of science, and the cultural needs of the life-world. Karl Ameriks has talked in this respect of the contemporary failure to ‘bridge the gap between private idealistic visions and an analytically rigorous but narrow focus on the latest scientific developments’ (Ameriks 2000 p. 268). Why bridging this gap matters can begin to be made clear by the following, and will concern us in the rest of the Conclusion. One of the consequences to be drawn from the Romantic heritage is that claims that

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Author: Philip Nanton

The book argues that the frontier, usually associated with the era of colonial conquest, has great, continuing and under explored relevance to the Caribbean region. Identifying the frontier as a moral, ideational and physical boundary between what is imagined as civilization and wilderness, the book seeks to extend frontier analysis by focusing on the Eastern Caribbean multi island state of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The continuing relevance of the concept of frontier, and allied notions of civilization and wilderness, are illuminated through an analysis of the ways in which SVG is perceived and experienced by both outsiders to the society and its insiders. Using literary sources, biographies and autobiography, the book shows how St. Vincent is imagined and made sense of as a modern frontier; a society in the balance between an imposed civilized order and an untameable wild that always encroaches, whether in the form of social dislocation, the urban presence of the ‘Wilderness people’ or illegal marijuana farming in the northern St. Vincent hills. The frontier as examined here has historically been and remains very much a global production. Simultaneously, it is argued that contemporary processes of globalization shape the development of tourism and finance sectors, as well as patterns of migration, they connect to shifting conceptions of the civilized and the wild, and have implications for the role of the state and politics in frontier societies.

From Kant to Nietzsche
Author: Andrew Bowie

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

Rupture and integration in the wake of total war

The development of the European Union as a community-based project of integration with decision-making powers outside the constitutional architecture of the nation-state is the most significant innovation in twentieth-century political organisation. It raises fundamental questions about our understanding of the state, sovereignty, citizenship, democracy, and the relationship between political power and economic forces. Despite its achievements, events at the start of the twenty-first century – including the political, economic, and financial crisis of the Eurozone, as well as Brexit and the rise of populism – pose an existential threat to the EU.

Memory and the future of Europe addresses the crisis of the EU by treating integration as a response to the rupture created by the continent’s experience of total war. It traces Europe’s existing pathologies to the project’s loss of its moral foundations rooted in collective memories of total war. As the generations with personal memories of the two world wars pass away, economic gain has become the EU’s sole raison d’être. If it is to survive its future challenges, the EU will have to create a new historical imaginary that relies not only on the lessons of the past, but also builds on Europe’s ability to protect its citizens by serving as a counterweight against the forces of globalisation. By framing its argument through the critical theory of the Frankfurt School, Memory and the future of Europe will attract readers interested in political and social philosophy, collective memory studies, European studies, international relations, and contemporary politics.

Abstract only
A plea for politics at the European level
Peter J. Verovšek

In regard to the essential kind of change at which critical theory aims, there can be no … conception of it until it actually comes about. If the proof of the pudding is in the eating, the eating here is still in the future. Max Horkheimer, ‘Traditional and Critical Theory’ (1937) Integration and the European rupture This book elucidates the origins, development, and future of one of the most interesting and important political innovations of the twentieth century: the European Union. My basic thesis is that the EU’s foundation as an autonomous

in Memory and the future of Europe
Paul K. Jones

’ and its distinctiveness. Necessarily, this has meant that the primary case under discussion has been the USA, notwithstanding the commonly overestimated but real role European fascism played in the Institute's work. This US focus is not merely a matter of happenstance resulting from the Institute's exile; the USA's role was pivotal to the development of ‘modern demagogy’. It so stands in contrast to other paradigmatic historical instances put forward in recent scholarship, notably Argentina's proposed role as a crucible of ‘modern populism’ discussed in Chapter 3

in Critical theory and demagogic populism
Mark Olssen

historicizing it and injecting it with an overarching spiritual significance in relation to progressive development. Influenced by the experience of the French Revolution, as well as the philosophies of Jean-Jacques Rousseau 5 and Sir James Steuart, 6 Hegel claimed to detect a suprahistorical process of reason whereby such disintegrations were reconciled, preserving the unity of totality overall. Foucault comments in The Hermeneutics of the Subject that Hegel was characteristic of much of nineteenth-century thought (Schelling, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Husserl, and

in Constructing Foucault’s ethics
Peter J. Verovšek

) The end of the European dream? The project of European unification is one of the most important and theoretically interesting political developments since 1945. 1 Despite its humble origins in the ECSC in 1952, at the beginning of the twenty-first century the influence of the EU can be felt in the everyday lives of Europeans in a myriad of ways, including the creation of the CM, the euro, and the Schengen border free zone. Even though the EU is officially still composed of independent, sovereign nation-states who act as the proverbial ‘Masters of the Treaties

in Memory and the future of Europe
Open Access (free)
Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’
Andrew Bowie

– Schelling uses the metaphor of the eddies in a stream which are filled by different water but retain their shape. Science now tells us that once the ‘idea’ of an organism is in existence it is transmitted chemically in the form of DNA, but DNA does not explain the emergence of organisms in the first instance, and it is precisely the emergence and development of an articulated nature which then develops into living organisms that makes sense of the idea of nature as a ‘productivity’. Schelling’s idea is, then, to link the intelligibility of the matter in nature, which can

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Abstract only
Peter J. Verovšek

assumption that nation-states are the most fundamental and important political actors in international politics, the development of the ‘Euro-polity’ has significant implications for existing theories of the state, sovereignty, social welfare, democracy, and citizenship, all of which are plagued by an inherent ‘methodological nationalism.’ Building on collective memories of a nightmarish past to create a better future, the EU has served as ‘the theoretical proving-ground of contemporary liberalism.’ 2 Despite its many achievements – a list that includes the fact that

in Memory and the future of Europe