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From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

1980–2000
Dominique Marshall

Introduction One of the goals of the photographers hired by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) during the 1990s and 2000s was to create images for the education of children and youth. For twenty years, CIDA sent these reproductions of images to schools in a multitude of formats, from magazines to videos, slide shows, games, picture books, and maps, produced in collaboration with academic specialists in education and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB). The attention and resources the international agency invested in the dissemination

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From import-substitution industrialization to economic liberalization
Sagarika Dutt

4 Economic development: from importsubstitution industrialization to economic liberalization When India became independent in 1947 Indian leaders were aware that India was a developing country even though the concept of development was not given sufficient international recognition before the launch of the UN Development Decades in 1961. This chapter will comment on the diversity of approaches to development, although its main focus will be the Indian government’s policies. However, one cannot understand these policies without some knowledge of their antecedents

in India in a globalized world
Sagarika Dutt

6 Alternative approaches to ‘development’ This chapter explores the argument that ‘development’ is much more than economic growth and involves a process of democratization that promotes the welfare of the people. Chapter 2 focused on the Indian constitution and political system and argued that, although British colonial rule led to the end of feudalism and to modernization in the area of government and politics, the British Indian state was not a democratic state. The democratization of Indian politics began with the birth of the Indian National Congress in 1885

in India in a globalized world
From model to symbol?
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

EUD1 10/28/03 2:38 PM Page 1 1 EU development cooperation: from model to symbol? Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organisation. It entertains formalised relations with almost all other (groups of ) states. Although much of its attention is devoted to internal integration, obviously the European Union cannot and does not wish to be an isolated entity. Instead it has expressed the desire and ambition to take up a prominent place in the working of

in EU development cooperation
Norman Geras

01 Crimes Against Humanity 001-031 3/12/10 10:10 Page 1 1 Origins and development It is an important principle of the rule of law that there is no crime except under law, that is, except when an action is in breach of some obligatory norm passed or recognized as being one by the body or bodies with proper authority so to pass or recognize it. Most generally this has meant that crimes are crimes under one or another system of municipal law and, since the origin of the modern state, that the definition and the punishment of crime have been seen as being the

in Crimes against humanity
Bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century
Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman

EUD8 10/28/03 3:16 PM Page 133 8 The Commission and development policy: bureaucratic politics in EU aid – from the Lomé leap forward to the difficulties of adapting to the twenty-first century Adrian Hewitt and Kaye Whiteman To integrate or to surpass the French neo-colonial system: the Commission’s choice From the time that a united Europe was a gleam in the eye of Jean Monnet to the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the institution of the Commission was central to the European idea. Rather than just a European civil service or a think-tank, it was

in EU development cooperation
Practice and policy lessons from Northern Ireland and the Border Counties
Author: Sandra Buchanan

Transforming Conflict examines lessons learned from the Northern Ireland and Border Counties conflict transformation process through social and economic development and their consequent impacts and implications for practice and policymaking, with a range of functional recommendations produced for other regions emerging from and seeking to transform violent conflict. It provides, for the first time, a comprehensive assessment of the region’s transformation activity, largely amongst grassroots actors, enabled by a number of specific funding programmes, namely the International Fund for Ireland, Peace I and II and INTERREG I, II and IIIA. These programmes have facilitated conflict transformation over more than two decades, presenting a case ripe for lesson sharing. In focusing on the politics of the socioeconomic activities that underpinned the elite negotiations of the peace process, key theoretical transformation concepts are firstly explored, followed by an examination of the social and economic context of Northern Ireland and the Border Counties. The three programmes and their impacts are then assessed before considering what policy lessons can be learned and what recommendations can be made for practice. This is underpinned by a range of semi-structured interviews and the author’s own experience as a project promoter through these programmes in the Border Counties for more than a decade.

Bernadette Connaughton

policy illustrates efforts to encourage convergent standards and strengthen national regulation among member states. The ultimate success of this policy area, however, is reliant on effective implementation and compliance within the member states. The chapter illustrates that EU environmental policy has made a greater mark on member state policy than politics and polity and that this inhibits its transformative capacity. The discussion commences with a commentary on international and EU developments in the environmental policy sphere which

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Ross M. English

1 Origins and development of Congress All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. (The Constitution of the United States of America, Article 1, Section 1) The origins of the Constitution In 1787, when the Founding Fathers of the United States of America crafted the Constitution – a Constitution which still endures today – they chose for the very first article, not the institution of the President or the Supreme Court, but the US Congress. The

in The United States Congress