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Bill Jones

right to help determine how they were governed, rather than by a hereditary monarchy or by religious ideas, which many now regarded with scepticism. Developments in the nineteenth century 1801, Ireland England had conquered Ireland by the end of the thirteenth century and English nobles proceeded to rule as ‘absentee landlords’ for the most part. English settlers were deliberately ‘planted’ in Ireland, with more marked success in the north. Protestantism, however, was not accepted by the Catholic country. Catholics were discriminated against and denied civil

in British politics today
Geoffrey K. Roberts

Of course, many factors, both internal to Germany and external (see Chapters 10 , 11 ) have influenced the development of the political system of the Federal Republic. Together with the prior-history and history of the Federal Republic ( Chapter 1 ), and the process of reunification ( Chapter 2 ), the most important have been the Basic Law itself, providing a constitutional basis for the political system, and the Federal Constitutional Court, charged with the task of interpreting that Basic Law. The economy, the division of Germany and the ‘cold war’ and the

in German politics today (third edition)
Tara, the M3 and the Celtic Tiger
Conor Newman

intellectual ghost-estate. The campaign to reroute the motorway, which lasted for nigh on a decade, took place against this background. If column inches are indicative of the scale and significance of an issue or event, apart from the development boom itself, the M3 controversy was one of the biggest news items of the period between 1999 and 2009. Even though there were arguments that challenged the rationale for yet another motorway through Meath, the campaign was not about halting the M3 but about redirecting it away from the historic landscape of Tara

in Defining events
Mike Buckle and John Thompson

construct. The question that is posed here is whether developments that lower transaction costs and alleviate the problems of asymmetric information in markets will lead to a decline in financial intermediation. There is evidence that large companies are moving away from intermediated finance through banks towards raising funds directly from capital markets. This phenomenon is referred to

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Neoliberal crisis, neoliberal solutions

Once held up as a 'poster child' for untrammeled capitalist globalisation, the Irish Republic has more recently come to represent a cautionary tale for those tempted to tread the same neoliberal path. The crash in the world economy had especially grave repercussions for Ireland, and a series of austerity measures has seen the country endure the most substantial 'adjustment' ever experienced in a developed society during peacetime. This book delineates the reactionary course that Ireland has followed since the ignominious demise of the Celtic Tiger. It argues that the forces of neoliberalism have employed the economic crisis they caused to advance policies that are in their own narrow interests, and that the host of regressive measures imposed since the onset of global recession has fundamentally restructured Irish society. The book discusses the mechanisms by which finance in Ireland sustains and reproduces itself, in particular how it was able to protect itself during the 2008 crisis. Property was at the centre of the second phase of the Celtic Tiger boom after US investment in manufacturing began to decline, leading to the Irish economic crash. The years since the onset of the recession in Ireland in 2008 have been characterised not by passivity and quietism but by extreme violence. In December 2009 as part of the first wave of austerity, the Community Development Project was informed that the Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs proposed not to continue funding the project beyond the end of 2009.

Silvia Salvatici

promise of using American know-how to take well-being to the globe’s ‘backward’ areas ‘hit the jackpot of the world’s political emotions’. 2 The idea of improving the living conditions of the ‘backwards’ populations with the superiority of their own resources – material and cultural – was certainly not new in Western countries’ political action and thinking. Academic studies – enriched in recent decades by a growing number of contributions 3 – have outlined a long period of development that, according to the most frequent interpretation, had its beginnings in

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Abstract only
Wyn Grant

14 separate areas of Green Belt that cover 13 per cent of England, plus one in Wales; mostly open land and countryside around the largest or most historic towns and cities. The policy came under increasing criticism after 2010 from economists, notably Nicholas Crafts. He pointed to the way in which economic recovery had been stimulated in the 1930s by private housebuilding at a time when there were few planning restrictions. Some of the features of this development attracted criticism, such as ‘ribbon development’ along roads and the relatively low density of

in Lobbying
Haute couture and design management in the postwar era
Véronique Pouillard

been the exclusive purview of a few social elites who could afford Paris haute couture. 2 Dressing in style was limited to the happy few. That said, American women, whether they lived on farms or in big cities, had started to demand fashionable dress. Paris was about to fall to the Nazis, and it was time, according to La Guardia, to acknowledge the huge American market and to support the work of New York designers. Up to this time, garment manufacturers in the United States had invested too little in design development. ‘It is getting to be a habit to hire designers

in European fashion
Silvia Salvatici

humanitarianism’s transformation. To understand this process, and therefore the reasons that contributed to making 1967–70 a turning point, we need to examine a longer stretch of time, which runs from the early 1950s to the end of the Cold War. The humanitarian agencies’ new global horizon had already developed before the civil war in Nigeria through the development programmes that for almost twenty years had been the main activity for international relief. The aim of these programmes was the social and economic advancement of the ‘backward’ countries, and went side by

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Abstract only
The parallel world of photography
Ernst Rebel

the original. In other words, they are represented in a way that lets us forget about the difference between original and reproduction. Today, this development towards apparent identity and authenticity is far from over – in the context of digital production it has only just begun. But there is another reason why photography must not be disregarded in the context of printed

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking