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Bill Jones

right to help determine how they were governed, rather than by a hereditary monarchy or by religious ideas, which many now regarded with scepticism. Developments in the nineteenth century 1801, Ireland England had conquered Ireland by the end of the thirteenth century and English nobles proceeded to rule as ‘absentee landlords’ for the most part. English settlers were deliberately ‘planted’ in Ireland, with more marked success in the north. Protestantism, however, was not accepted by the Catholic country. Catholics were discriminated against and denied civil

in British politics today
Geoffrey K. Roberts

Of course, many factors, both internal to Germany and external (see Chapters 10 , 11 ) have influenced the development of the political system of the Federal Republic. Together with the prior-history and history of the Federal Republic ( Chapter 1 ), and the process of reunification ( Chapter 2 ), the most important have been the Basic Law itself, providing a constitutional basis for the political system, and the Federal Constitutional Court, charged with the task of interpreting that Basic Law. The economy, the division of Germany and the ‘cold war’ and the

in German politics today (third edition)
Mike Buckle
John Thompson

construct. The question that is posed here is whether developments that lower transaction costs and alleviate the problems of asymmetric information in markets will lead to a decline in financial intermediation. There is evidence that large companies are moving away from intermediated finance through banks towards raising funds directly from capital markets. This phenomenon is referred to

in The UK financial system (fifth edition)
Silvia Salvatici

promise of using American know-how to take well-being to the globe’s ‘backward’ areas ‘hit the jackpot of the world’s political emotions’. 2 The idea of improving the living conditions of the ‘backwards’ populations with the superiority of their own resources – material and cultural – was certainly not new in Western countries’ political action and thinking. Academic studies – enriched in recent decades by a growing number of contributions 3 – have outlined a long period of development that, according to the most frequent interpretation, had its beginnings in

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
Abstract only
Wyn Grant

14 separate areas of Green Belt that cover 13 per cent of England, plus one in Wales; mostly open land and countryside around the largest or most historic towns and cities. The policy came under increasing criticism after 2010 from economists, notably Nicholas Crafts. He pointed to the way in which economic recovery had been stimulated in the 1930s by private housebuilding at a time when there were few planning restrictions. Some of the features of this development attracted criticism, such as ‘ribbon development’ along roads and the relatively low density of

in Lobbying
Haute couture and design management in the postwar era
Véronique Pouillard

been the exclusive purview of a few social elites who could afford Paris haute couture. 2 Dressing in style was limited to the happy few. That said, American women, whether they lived on farms or in big cities, had started to demand fashionable dress. Paris was about to fall to the Nazis, and it was time, according to La Guardia, to acknowledge the huge American market and to support the work of New York designers. Up to this time, garment manufacturers in the United States had invested too little in design development. ‘It is getting to be a habit to hire designers

in European fashion
Silvia Salvatici

humanitarianism’s transformation. To understand this process, and therefore the reasons that contributed to making 1967–70 a turning point, we need to examine a longer stretch of time, which runs from the early 1950s to the end of the Cold War. The humanitarian agencies’ new global horizon had already developed before the civil war in Nigeria through the development programmes that for almost twenty years had been the main activity for international relief. The aim of these programmes was the social and economic advancement of the ‘backward’ countries, and went side by

in A history of humanitarianism, 1755–1989
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England’s shared exceptionalism
Ben Wellings

the first of Queen Elizabeth II’s Royal Tours. The effect of such narratives was to link England’s constitutional development with nations outside of the EU, simultaneously stressing commonality with non-EU nations and differentiation from EU nations. The global dimensions of the commemorations of the events at Runnymede should alert us to an important fact: England was a very ‘global’ nation and not all Brexiteers were ‘Little Englanders’, however much their opponents tried to land this opprobrium on them. An important part of their vision for the United

in English nationalism, Brexit and the Anglosphere
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Martine Monacelli

which provided an intellectual base for women’s claims. The recognition of women’s civic rights, the development of their education (without which there could have been no emancipation), the progressive extension of their sphere, was therefore indissociable from wider reform campaigns which acted as a stimulus for female reformers to start their own, and offered them opportunities as well as male support and patronage. 20 Woman’s place, woman’s mission The role that women came to play in the public sphere resulted largely from the coalescing of

in Male voices on women's rights
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The future of nudge and think
Peter John
Sarah Cotterill
Alice Moseley
Liz Richardson
Graham Smith
Gerry Stoker
, and
Corinne Wales

, while command and control and top-down implementation no longer seemed to work (Salamon 1989 ). The intellectual innovation behind behavioural economics goes back to the 1960s and 1970s, as do debates on participatory democracy that foreshadowed the development of deliberative democracy. The adoptions of nudge and think have been powerful phenomena, having been introduced over a long time alongside many other changes to public policy and public management. They have bedded down, do not show signs of abating, and are adopted by many governments and agencies across the

in Nudge, nudge, think, think (second edition)