3 The developmenT of deaf clubs in briTain The deaf community could not have come into existence without shared locations where socially isolated deaf people could gather and develop relationships based on common experiences and characteristics. As the previous chapter illustrated, deaf clubs have long been seen as the hub of deaf community life but little has been previously known about how or why they emerged other than that these deaf clubs arose from a number of local voluntary organisations set up to assist deaf people in their daily lives. In this chapter
2 The development and marketing of specialist water cure resorts Introduction While the English spas have been accorded an influential role in shaping elite social life in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, their importance to nineteenth-century society and culture is perceived to have waned. As a result there has been little systematic investigation of their growth and development after 1815.1 Spas are considered to be the pre-eminent example of a new category of town – the health and leisure resort – that emerged as part of a broad expansion in diverse
124 4 Discrimination and the development of general practice The presence of migrant South Asian doctors in the British healthcare system can be linked to the existence of a post-imperial recruitment system in post-war Britain and the lingering effects of the empire of the mind in South Asia. Their movement into general practice, however, requires to be understood in a different way. This chapter and Chapter 5 will show how a discriminatory professional environment limited these doctors’ options and how their responses to this context contributed to defining
This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.
experience of a spa town for a season, and sick bodies took centre stage. The very idea of grandeur only concerned the few towns that could invest in architectural developments. Some spa towns were complete failures. Others, like a bubble, rose quickly and disappeared even quicker. For some investors, spas, when properly managed or conveniently located, yielded considerable profits, but others saw their financial dreams gulped down in a sinkhole. From Restoration to Regency, there were up to two hundred locations in Britain, ranging from simple wells to large spa towns
of changes in attitudes to families, children and gender were appearing. As Sarah Fishman has shown, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir and Alfred Kinsey were becoming reference points for incipient changes in social attitudes around sexuality and the self, and France was becoming an ever more ‘psychologised’ society. 1 These developments followed a war and occupation in which 600,000 French soldiers and civilians died, 1.6 million soldiers became prisoners of war and 650,000 people undertook forced labour (Service du
financial business of spas which contemporaries perceived as risky. They potentially constituted a substantial profit but could also result in a dramatically speedy loss – and in that way resembled the gambling craze that accompanied the development of spa towns. Gambling is a good place to start this investigation. Before casinos existed in the spas of continental Europe, gaming practices evolved somewhat organically, and spa towns of all sizes were key to their development. 3 Following up on the eighteenth
, with retrospective notions of science according to a binary system of what is scientific and what is not. 69 Although promotion clearly played an important part in treatises like those of John Wall, the long-term economic development of spas like Malvern also relied on their capacity to bring relief to those who came to take the waters. In this context, what can be made of cases like Mrs Cotton's, or of the young boy's ulcerous elbows? True or not – an unresolved yet valid question – the presence of such cases in a
human being, a dream-seed carrier Imagination, collaboration and co-creation Not only the quantifiable tangible and visible Are central to our development, our survival We come from gene-trees with the capacity to transcend The audacity to tunnel through oppression and negation To reveal and express perspectives that tip the world's axis In the naming, the claiming of what we
This concluding chapter tackles the question of Dolto’s twenty-first-century reputation and what France is to do with her legacy.
Considering various references to Dolto in intellectual and popular culture, it shows that after 2000, she was no longer seen as a unifying national expert, but rather as someone linked to a particular ideological outlook, whose ideas were a suitable subject for mockery. Efforts to continue her agenda by her daughter or the politician Edwige Antier, or by opponents of equal marriage legislation, demonstrate that Dolto’s thinking became a polarising rather than a unifying force.
The chapter also shows how, towards the end of her life in the 1980s, Dolto was disconcerted by an increased focus on the psychology of race and empire in France’s former colonies, and unable to adapt her ideas to this development.
As Dolto’s life recedes into history, it becomes easier to see her ideas as products of a particular set of historical circumstances, rather than – as she and her followers believed – timeless truths about the human condition. While there are good reasons for wishing to retain some of Dolto’s contribution, it is doubtful that the ongoing desire to celebrate the positive aspects of her interventions can withstand the increasing criticism of the problematic and outdated aspects of her ideas.