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Martin Atherton

3 The developmenT of deaf clubs in briTain The deaf community could not have come into existence without shared locations where socially isolated deaf people could gather and develop relationships based on common experiences and characteristics. As the previous chapter illustrated, deaf clubs have long been seen as the hub of deaf community life but little has been previously known about how or why they emerged other than that these deaf clubs arose from a number of local voluntary organisations set up to assist deaf people in their daily lives. In this chapter

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Jane M. Adams

2 The development and marketing of specialist water cure resorts Introduction While the English spas have been accorded an influential role in shaping elite social life in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, their importance to nineteenth-century society and culture is perceived to have waned. As a result there has been little systematic investigation of their growth and development after 1815.1 Spas are considered to be the pre-eminent example of a new category of town – the health and leisure resort – that emerged as part of a broad expansion in diverse

in Healing with water
Julian M. Simpson

124 4 Discrimination and the development of general practice The presence of migrant South Asian doctors in the British healthcare system can be linked to the existence of a post-​imperial recruitment system in post-​war Britain and the lingering effects of the empire of the mind in South Asia. Their movement into general practice, however, requires to be understood in a different way. This chapter and Chapter 5 will show how a discriminatory professional environment limited these doctors’ options and how their responses to this context contributed to defining

in Migrant architects of the NHS
A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

of changes in attitudes to families, children and gender were appearing. As Sarah Fishman has shown, Sigmund Freud, Simone de Beauvoir and Alfred Kinsey were becoming reference points for incipient changes in social attitudes around sexuality and the self, and France was becoming an ever more ‘psychologised’ society. 1 These developments followed a war and occupation in which 600,000 French soldiers and civilians died, 1.6 million soldiers became prisoners of war and 650,000 people undertook forced labour (Service du

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Abstract only
Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

This concluding chapter tackles the question of Dolto’s twenty-first-century reputation and what France is to do with her legacy.

Considering various references to Dolto in intellectual and popular culture, it shows that after 2000, she was no longer seen as a unifying national expert, but rather as someone linked to a particular ideological outlook, whose ideas were a suitable subject for mockery. Efforts to continue her agenda by her daughter or the politician Edwige Antier, or by opponents of equal marriage legislation, demonstrate that Dolto’s thinking became a polarising rather than a unifying force.

The chapter also shows how, towards the end of her life in the 1980s, Dolto was disconcerted by an increased focus on the psychology of race and empire in France’s former colonies, and unable to adapt her ideas to this development.

As Dolto’s life recedes into history, it becomes easier to see her ideas as products of a particular set of historical circumstances, rather than – as she and her followers believed – timeless truths about the human condition. While there are good reasons for wishing to retain some of Dolto’s contribution, it is doubtful that the ongoing desire to celebrate the positive aspects of her interventions can withstand the increasing criticism of the problematic and outdated aspects of her ideas.

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in interwar France
Richard Bates

venereal disease. 20 It largely focused on children labelled abnormal, deviant, delinquent or backward. Alfred Binet had driven the development of psychometric intelligence testing as a way to identify so-called abnormal children, defined as those likely to encounter severe difficulties at school. 21 Heuyer, who like many contemporary French scientists believed in the Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics, defined abnormal children as those who, ‘under the influence of morbid defects, most often hereditary, present

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto and the psychoanalytic approach to autism in France
Richard Bates

shown, his work had some deeply problematic aspects, and bore the imprint of its development in the context of a Nazi psychology which served as the justification for the wartime child euthanasia programme in which Asperger was complicit. 12 These aspects were not recognised, however, when his work was taken up and popularised by the English psychiatrist Lorna Wing in the 1980s, prior to which it was largely unknown. Meanwhile Kanner (1894–1981), a Ukrainian Jewish émigré based at Johns Hopkins University in

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Françoise breaks free?
Richard Bates

encountered these books as a teenager and used them in a school presentation. 42 Her father’s middle-class engineering background and strong interest in fashionable scientific developments help explain why, despite being closely wedded to conservative norms, the family was also – relatively unusually – open to sending its children to a psychoanalyst in the 1930s. The overriding concern affecting Dolto’s upbringing was her parents’ resolve that their children should advance or at least maintain the family’s social

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Popularising psychoanalysis, 1945–68
Richard Bates

-based pedagogy. 6 In 1929 she published The Nursery Years (1929), a seventy-five-page manual on child psychology which sold 100,000 copies. 7 From 1929 to 1936 Isaacs wrote a column on ‘Childhood problems’ under the pseudonym ‘Ursula Wise’ in Nursery World , a magazine aimed at nannies, and from 1933 she ran courses in child development at the University of London targeted at early-years educators. Her example demonstrates that a psychoanalytic approach to education could lead to a diverse career, informing interventions in areas

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France