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Chloe Campbell

In this chapter, the effects of biological thinking on attitudes towards African development and social policy in Kenya will be explored using juvenile delinquency, intelligence testing and mental health as examples. Debates about juvenile delinquency and criminal insanity were domestic aspects of a wider eugenic debate about African educability and social progress, but

in Race and empire
Gordon Pirie

The Secretary of State’s flight to India aboard an Imperial Airways aeroplane in 1926/27 was only one step toward the creation of Empire airways. Empire route development took place in stages. The network was not laid out in one grand sweep even though the guiding dream was always two imperial trunk lines, one to South Africa, and one to India and Australia (a commercial

in Air empire
Health and medicine in the planning and politics of British Tanganyika
Walter Bruchhausen

Whereas health care is an important part of contemporary development co-operation with independent African nations – both in finances and in staff – the same cannot be said of the development discourses in late colonialism. The relationship between health and development was various and changing, thus inviting a closer look. This chapter

in Developing Africa
Sabine Clarke

In a break with previous policy, the Colonial Office announced in 1943 that it would promote industrial development in Britain’s colonies. Manufacturing ventures were now deemed essential to raise living standards and address the politically dangerous issue of colonial unemployment. Officials became occupied with the question of what constituted acceptable modes of intervention by metropolitan and colonial governments to facilitate economic diversification. The challenge was to reconcile the need for demonstration of a more constructive

in Science at the end of empire
Sabine Clarke

exactly was knowledge expected to move from the laboratory and spur development? This chapter will examine the relationship between scientific investigation and colonial development that was embodied in the new arrangements for colonial research that were created in fields such as sugar chemistry during the first half of the 1940s. The late colonial period saw an unprecedented expansion in scientific research across the Colonial Empire and in British universities, funded through the Research Fund of the 1940 CDW Act and its successors. The new

in Science at the end of empire
Sciences of development in Rhodesia's Native Affairs Department
Jocelyn Alexander

activity relied on the elaboration of new scientific practices and expertise, and in the institutionalisation of cadres of experts. It heralded an unprecedented intervention into the ways in which Africans lived and farmed. In Southern Rhodesia, this was the era of ‘technical development’. The bright promise of technical development did not, however, last long. Its rejection in favour of what was dubbed

in Science and society in southern Africa
The mythologies and legacies of mechanised tropical agriculture in French Africa, 1944 – 56
Céline Pessis

Introduction During the post-war years, a ‘climate of mechanisation’ 1 held sway in the new French Union and heavily influenced the formulation of ambitious plans for economic development in the colonies. The machine, a heroic victor in wartime, was destined for a new battleground: Africa. In order to confront the problem of agricultural

in Developing Africa
Examples from late Ottoman-era Palestine and the late British Mandate
Yossi Katz and Liora Bigon

Since the early twentieth century, much attention has been paid to Ebenezer Howard’s well-known book Garden Cities of To-Morrow . The aim of this chapter is to examine the reception of Howard’s widely disseminated ideas in early twentieth-century Palestine and their influence on Ottoman-era urban development (up to 1917), particularly in Tel

in Garden cities and colonial planning
Uyilawa Usuanlele

came to be tied to the indirect system of rule and development ‘along native lines’ policy that was adopted by various colonial administrations. 1 The introduction of colonial development policies from the late 1920s, particularly the Colonial Development and Welfare Act (CDWA) of 1940 which had a welfare component, is said to have had a beneficial impact on education in Africa

in Developing Africa
The case of colonial Zambia
Sven Speek

The ‘greening’ of development seems to represent a comparatively recent phase in development thought. Labels like eco-, environmentally sensitive, green, or sustainable development promise an alternative to conventional concepts of development through the integration of ecological principles. 1 A historical analysis of the idea of development

in Developing Africa