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Politics and law
Evgeny Roshchin

2 Early modern friendship: politics and law Horizontal and hierarchical power relations within a community Medieval Scholastic scholarship and its intellectual agenda shaped by ideas of a universal order were irrevocably challenged by the Reformation and the consequent segmentation of Europe, a process accelerated by rivalries among major political powers. The demand for intellectual tools to account for manifested contingency and the particularity of political situations necessitated a turn to a powerful alternative able to be sensitive to the experience of

in Friendship among nations
Paul Currion

. , Seem , M. and Lane , H. R. ( Minneapolis, MN : University of Minnesota Press ). Eisenstein , E. ( 2005 ), The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ). Frontier Economics

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Abstract only
Helen Thompson

the contingency of the authority and power of states can usefully take us back into the history of political thought, which has M1218 - THOMPSON TXT.qxp:GRAHAM Q7.3 6 10/3/08 13:10 Page 6 Might, right, prosperity and consent become regrettably separated from much contemporary political science, and in particular to early modern debates about reason of state. Although he did not use the term, reason of state was Machiavelli’s legacy to political understanding.11 He insisted, as nobody in western political thought had previously, that preserving authority

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Evgeny Roshchin

early modern and contemporary diplomatic practice. Therefore, it is reasonable to suppose that the study of such documents is likely to uncover linguistic conventions and political practices that are antithetical to natural and ethical interpretations. The unintended consequence of the conceptual transformation in philosophical debate was to divert the attention of students of international politics from one of the most salient and possibly most political functions of friendship in diplomatic communication. In this way, early modern discourse of and about

in Friendship among nations
History of a concept
Author: Evgeny Roshchin

This book is about friendship between sovereign political agents, whose role in the modern world is performed by states. It focuses on relations of friendship that bind together whole polities. Apart from bilateral friendships, the world has seen multiple attempts to posit friendship as the true foundation of a properly organised international community. The attempts range from the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through Churches, to the United Nations Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States. There are two basic roles that friendship can play in the discourses on international relations. The first is as an anthropomorphic metaphor for the relations between states. The second functions as a constituent part of a normative argument seeking a change in international relations. The book highlights common ways in which classical literature uses the concept of friendship in the context of relations with foreign powers. David Ramsay references to 'the ties of ancient friendship' as an important gesture in communication with native Americans. The ethical concept of political friendship is never strictly separated from the performance of political roles. Samuel Pufendorf's description of commonwealths as moral persons stirred up intense debate over how to conceive the sum of such artificial persons and the relations between them. Finally, the book talks about normative and 'naturalist' consensual understanding by scrutinising the justificatory functions of friendship in diplomatic agreements.

Abstract only
Evgeny Roshchin

/ moralist and sceptical/realist perspectives is a product of ‘the social construction’ of knowledge. The construction can be traced back to early modern theoretical, and hence rhetorical, debate over the principles upon which relations among sovereign polities in international society are built. Making a successful and convincing contribution to the debate required re-describing the concept of friendship in naturalistic and ethical terms. Thenceforth, the naturalistic and ethical concept of friendship established itself as dominant and effectively foreclosed theoretical

in Friendship among nations
Evgeny Roshchin

3 The ethics of friendship in early European diplomacy Surprising as it may sound, Humanist discourse in early modern Europe operated with a range of linguistic conventions that signalled the existence of a concept of friendship that was not only distinct from but also often entirely excluded the possibility of the contractual concept discussed in the previous chapter, despite sharing its key terms – ‘friendship’ and ‘amity’. The conventions that determined its distinct conceptual identity stemmed from the realm of ethics and morality, which many believe to be

in Friendship among nations
Abstract only
Evgeny Roshchin

Introduction The problem This book is about friendship between sovereign political agents, whose role in the modern world is performed by states. However, not all the political friends that feature in this book fit contemporary ideas about state and sovereignty, unless we anachronistically describe as states agents acting on behalf of aggregate entities or representing their own realms in the classical and early modern periods. This book therefore focuses on relations of friendship that bind together whole polities. What this book is not about are international

in Friendship among nations
Evgeny Roshchin

1 The ambivalence of ancient friendship In this chapter I set out to highlight common ways in which classical literature uses the concept of friendship in the context of relations with foreign powers. I do not aim to analyse the whole corpus of ancient Greek and Roman literature. The task of this chapter is much more modest. It will deal with a small number of classical authors who were invoked, often in an eclectic manner, in early modern literature on the law of nations, and later in international relations, as intellectual authorities or sources of

in Friendship among nations
Conceptual change in modernity
Evgeny Roshchin

benevolent political relations among public persons. Hobbes also uses the term ‘amity’ in the sense of civil concord common to earlier thinkers. Early modern moralists put forward the concept of amity as concord, together with the virtues of love and benevolence, to neutralise or mitigate the perils of civil factions and to achieve the ideals of the good life within a political entity. In Leviathan, we find a seemingly identical use of the concept: ‘it is they say, impossible to entertain a constant Civill Amity with all those, with whom the Businesse of the world

in Friendship among nations