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Daniel Owen Spence

Part IV East Asia

in Colonial naval culture and British imperialism, 1922–67
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Imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953

In the new world order mapped out by Japanese and Western imperialism in East Asia after the mid-nineteenth century opium wars, communities of merchants and settlers took root in China and Korea. New identities were constructed, new modes of collaboration formed and new boundaries between the indigenous and foreign communities were established. This book explores two themes at the heart of the colonial process: agency and identity. The agents of British empire in China included the usual suspects: Britons from the official and military castes, as well as Iraqi Jewish merchants, Parsis and Indian Jews, Eurasians, South East Asian Chinese. The reliance of colonial regimes on local middlemen has become an essential part of any explanation of colonialism, though it is only very recently that the model has been systematically applied to Hong Kong. The Daniel Richard Caldwell affair could hardly have broken out at a more difficult time for the young and problematic British colony at Hong Kong. The book defines the ambiguous positioning of the Baghdadis vis-a-vis the British, and shows that their marginality did not represent, as a whole, a significant hindrance to their sojourn in the Shanghai foreign settlements. In Shanghai the German community recognised the leading role which the Nazi party held and which everyone, even the other foreign communities, seemed to accept. The book also looks at the aspects of their economic, social and political life that Indians led in the colony of Hong Kong and in the Chinese treaty ports.

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Robert Bickers and Christian Henriot

Despite its grossly tangible historical presence, imperialism is a spectre which haunts the historiography of East Asia by its absence. Despite the redrawing of the maps, the renaming of cities, the creation of new borders, cities, countries, languages and identities, historians of China, Japan and Korea mostly content themselves with placing imperialism within nationalist narratives of subjugation, humiliation, resistance, and liberation. Historians of British or Japanese imperialism have also pared their analyses down

in New frontiers
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A colonial world
John Darwin

The studies in this book portray what is unmistakably a colonial world. They demonstrate, if proof is needed, that imperialism in East Asia was not a marginal case, nor a pale shadow of what is sometimes thought of as an African or Indian ‘norm’. Empire building was as central a feature of the region’s modern history as it was in tropical Africa or South Asia. Since the 1840s the stakes of empire had been higher, the risks greater, the rewards more enticing and the local resistance more tenacious than in almost any other

in New frontiers
Howard Chiang

categories that structure our thought, pattern our arguments and proofs, and certify our standards for explanation.”5 Their 4 Howard Chiang work on the construction and transformation of concepts of evidence, scientific objectivity, and personhood has fundamentally reoriented the terrain of the history and philosophy of science and medicine, proving to be an indispensable source of inspiration for a new generation of scholars. Despite this, however, scholars of East Asian science and medicine have not had the chance to come together and direct similarly inspired

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine
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French Indochina as a failed symbolic resource
John Hennessey

resistance of the colonized to this image. After describing the disappointed hopes for a lucrative trade with southern China that largely prompted France’s takeover of the Indochinese peninsula, this chapter will present an overview of the cyclical history of dreams and disappointment that kept the French in South-East Asia for the better part of a century. The Second Empire: the lure

in Imperial expectations and realities
The Tokugawa, the Zheng maritime network, and the Dutch East India Company
Adam Clulow and Xing Hang

confiscated, and most of its crew massacred, their bodies dumped overboard. Tokugawa officials had been dealing with violence on the sea lanes criss-crossing East Asia for years, but there was something different about this episode. The ship from Ryukyu had not been attacked by a European overseas enterprise like the Dutch East India Company operating with a flexible dispensation for privateering. Instead, it had been seized by vessels attached to the Zheng state on Taiwan.3 By 1672, when news of the vessel’s capture reached Nagasaki, Zheng Chenggong, who had evicted the

in A global history of early modern violence
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An industry in decline
Brenda M. King

antiquity, and references to the cloth trade can be found in Chinese, South East Asian and Islamic sources, all of which predate the arrival of Europeans as participants in the maritime Asian economy by centuries. 2 Sir George Watt refers to Greek texts that have details of Indian cloth

in Silk and empire
Frank Uekötter

There are many ways to lose a war. One of the more embarrassing ones is to run out of rubber. That prospect was haunting Americans in 1942 when the country was gearing up its war economy. In the months after Pearl Harbor, Japan had occupied the rubber plantations of South-east Asia, forcing the US to find other suppliers. The search turned into a frenzy. In March

in Sites of imperial memory
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The children of the Vietnam War
Sabine Lee

, which can only be 112 Bui Doi: the children of the Vietnam War 113 appreciated against the background of the conflict and its aftermath. Therefore some background to the Vietnam War is presented to facilitate an understanding of the particular situation which the mixed-race children of GIs faced in wartime and post-war Vietnam, as well as in America and Western Europe, when they eventually settled there. This chapter, after providing the war context and the particular geopolitical circumstances of American engagement in South East Asia, will address the following

in Children born of war in the twentieth century