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Rethinking Digital Divides by Linda Leung
Antonio Díaz Andrade

she organises into three groups by the geographical regions they come from: South East Asians (from Cambodia, Burma and Thailand), Africans and the third group, comprising Iraqis, Iranians and Afghans. She discovers differences in their ability to use telecommunications technology (e.g. telephones, fax machines and mobile phones), depending on their countries of origin, suggesting that conflict, war or government surveillance hindered their abilities. Leung also observes that exposure to new

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Dominique Marshall

). CIDA ( 1989–90 ) Annual Report ( Ottawa : CIDA ). CIDA ( 1990a ), East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific, Activity Sheet. Families of the World ( Hull, QC : Media-Sphere, Youth Editions ). CIDA ( 1990b ), Eastern Caribbean ( Hull, QC : Media-Sphere, Youth Editions ). Bilingual poster . CIDA ( 1991–95 ), Somewhere Today / Aujourd’hui quelque part ( Hull, QC : Media-Sphere, Youth Editions ). Published four times during the school year. Thematic issues included La fête!; Going to School; My School, Your

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps
Lasse Heerten
Arua Oko Omaka
Kevin O'Sullivan
, and
Bertrand Taithe

, these references also lead us into the global 1960s. It is only partly true that Biafra was the first postcolonial conflict that was discussed as a genocide – but the way these references worked changed with Biafra. Already before the American war in South East Asia, what is usually called the Vietnam War was then described as possibly genocidal. This was something that many New Leftists at least were concerned about. Some of their leading figures and intellectuals associated

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

which a resurgent Russia has stepped. These are structural shifts in the sense that even the most liberal government in the US would find it hard to throw its weight around when China is always available – in South East Asia, in Africa, in Central Asia – to provide financing and diplomatic support with few strings attached (and to threaten forms of retaliation when such inducements fail). The rise of Trump can even be explained as a reaction to a sense of gathering national decline, hence his campaign slogan: ‘Make America Great Again

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan
Otto Farkas

required to sustain human health and life are not recovering from growing environmental stress, natural disasters and climate-change impacts ( IFRC, 2018 ; IPBES 2019 ; Myers et al. , 2017 ; Whitmee et al. , 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2016 ) estimated that exposure to ‘unhealthy environments’ caused 12.6 million deaths in 2012, with South East Asia and Western Pacific bearing the highest burden, of 7.3 million deaths. In 2015, exposure to environmental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
What Lessons Can Be Drawn from Case Studies in France, the United States and Madagascar?
Hugo Carnell

conventional to identify three separate historical plague pandemics. The First Plague Pandemic originated in sub-Saharan Africa in the sixth century ad , spreading to Europe by 541 and continuing to ravage the Mediterranean Basin until around 750 ( Keller et al. , 2019 : 12363–4). This was followed by the Second Plague Pandemic, which arrived in Europe from East Asia in the fourteenth century. Although this pandemic is associated most strongly with the Black Death of 1347

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

continents, such as the AU, or regions, such as the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (see Chapter XV ). Socialisation : states establish organisations and bodies that deal with social problems, such as the environment (United Nations Environmental Program) and human rights (UN Human Rights Council). The developments outlined above

in The basics of international law
The prohibition on the use of force
Nikolaos K. Tsagourias

. 41 Indochina: Hearings Before the Subcomm. on East-Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Senate Comm. on Foreign Relations , 95th Cong., 2nd Sess. (1978), p. 24. 42 W. M. Reisman, ‘Criteria for the Lawful Use of Force in International Law’, 10 Yale JIL ( 1984–85 ), p. 279, at p. 281; A. A. D

in Jurisprudence of international law
Abstract only
Gender trouble in Siddiq Barmak’s Osama
Gabrielle Simm

, decision-making on the use of force if Bollywood, Nollywood or Chinese cinema were the subject of analysis? 17 It may be that those film industries have a different take on the conflicts that repeatedly appear in Hollywood films; or that they focus on different wars: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka or Kashmir; West African conflicts in which Nigeria plays regional superpower; or East Asian hot and cold wars? International lawyers with the linguistic and cultural competence to analyse these films would do well to undertake this work. Perhaps these cinemas are interested in other

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

policy (with some reference to the Americas, East Asia and India), I examine how human rights, behavioural science and innovation economics have been brought to bear on the typically neo-classical economic models used to regulate telco networks through which we connect to the Internet. The telcos and their regulators’ corporatist modes of regulation, co- and self-regulation (state–firm bargaining with

in Network neutrality