Paradigms for economicgovernance: how
cities grew bigger and better
The making of a new synthesis or paradigm as a form of crisis resolution
in the seventeenth century led to the Enlightenment with its hope of the
perfectibility of society, and a similar shock during the era of the French
Revolution advanced the Enlightenment agenda by extending civic
rights and scientific and engineering projects, further expanding markets
and the stock of useful knowledge in the nineteenth century. By the end
of that century, the adoption of city-wide networks based on
Cities have been missing from analyses of the crisis and debates about how to generate a sustainable recovery. Illuminating recent trends and emerging risks, Cities and Crisis is about the future, starting where we are. A fresh assessment is needed of what has changed since 1990 and what has not, of policy assumptions about urban economies, of the lessons of experience. Cities and Crisis looks at the strengths and weaknesses of macro-economic and sectoral policies to guide urban development in both declining and growing cities and regions. Without higher levels of urban innovation and infrastructure investment, growth will remain below potential. Stronger urban economies is not our only challenge. We can expect more frequent and more costly environmental, health, and even economic crises. Cities and Crisis frames a discussion of the vulnerability of cities, resilience, and the limits of domestic regulation to cope with mega-disasters and cross-border risks. The urban transformation which covers what must change in cities, to reduce the infrastructure deficit, improve productivity, and cope with emerging and known risks, must accelerate from the historical trend of 1-2% to 3-4% per year. This is unlikely to happen as long as governments seem unable to set out a vision of the future of cities. The urban agenda, including security and cross-border risks, will have a major impact on nation-states in the 21st century. The level of uncertainty must be reduced if people are to have confidence to invest for the future. The West has always resolved once-in-a-century crises with a paradigm shift that speaks to our collective fears and hopes. Drawing on dozens of OECD reports on economic, environmental and governance, Cities and Crisis provides a “long-term, big-time” framework to put cities at the centre of policy.
to crossborder risks; there is what to worry about. If these assumptions for
Part III are unfounded, the future will show either that current trends
and forecasts exaggerate risks, or that national governments demonstrate the capacity to cope with them when and where they occur.
The remaining chapters are of the nature of “what if”: what are the
implications for economicgovernance for cities if there are more, and
more complex and potentially destructive crises; if a paradigm change
in national policies to make cities safer does not come early enough; if
Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.
Will inter-dependence reshape rules for the twenty-first century?
Josef W. Konvitz
cities; a challenge for citizens to accept
changes in living patterns. The advantages of a liberal, inter-connected
economy must reinforce, not compromise, the social and environmental
conditions of the places where people live. And most people live in cities
and urban regions.
If we are at a turning point, it is because we do not see solutions to
problems. And when problems accumulate, and appear intractable, the
resulting situation itself becomes critical. The crisis of 2008 revealed and
exacerbated economicgovernance shortcomings which the regulatory
mode of the
unregulated segments of the national
or international labour market, economic crises and the rapid growth of new
service industries with lower trade union density, the balance of power has
shifted in recent decades in favour of employers, which can have significant
negative effects on job quality.
This change has often taken place gradually as the various influencing factors have steadily accumulated, causing labour standards to be eroded slowly.
The deregulation promoted by the economicgovernance framework of the
European Union (EU) has accelerated this process. Jill
sometimes been argued that the shifts in the functions
of economicgovernance actors associated with a focus on international competitiveness have been, or should be, accompanied by shifts in the levels of
governance. The nation state, in other words, becomes increasingly ‘leaky’ as
a ‘container of governance’ (Brenner et al., 2003). Its coordinating capacities
are fragmented, with some capacity transferred upwards (e.g. supranational or
transnational institutions providing competition rules) and some downwards
(with subnational regions or localities charged with
system itself as a
broader tool of socio-economicgovernance and not just a
communists constructing capitalism
system of m
icroeconomic intermediation with macroeconomic
implications opens up scope for reinterpreting the institutional
foundations of the connection between the financial system, the
real economy, and the political system. Notwithstanding the
specific combination of state or market actors within the institutional dynamics of a financial system, its capacity to intermediate
capital effectively is dependent upon systems of trust, expectations, and
centre of an ambitious agenda for comprehensive
reform of social and economicgovernance. The SCS provides an
insight into the novel mechanisms of ‘algorithmic governance’
(Campbell-Verduyn et al. 2017) that will play an increasingly
significant role in underpinning the political-economic stability of
China’s authoritarian capitalism.
The preliminary plan for a comprehensive SCS was announced
in 2014 (PRC State Council 2014) and forms the overarching blueprint of the broader plan of upgrading both social and economic
supervision through technological innovation. The
overlook both the benefits and costs
associated with spatial change. Economicgovernance as we know it is
ill-equipped to help decision-makers in the private and public sectors
manage space better, which has become imperative.
The image of the dynamo came to symbolize the importance of electricity and other services in the modern city. These invisible services,
a form of modern labor-saving magic, run virtually automatically, or
at least without the need for those who use them to intervene in their
production: we do not haul water or wood, put coal in furnaces, carry