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Abstract only
Janet Laible and Scott L. Greer

government to engage in contingency planning with measures ranging from preparations for stockpiling food and critical medical supplies to provisions for the deployment of the military in the event of the collapse of order. Contributors to this volume, then, have attempted to assess the consequences of Brexit for the Single Market and economic governance in the EU, on the legal order and social construction of the European Union, and on the future external orientation and institutional forms of the EU without knowledge of what the final stages of the Brexit process will

in The European Union after Brexit
Balancing, accommodation or driver of change?
María J. García

economy is to encourage liberalising reforms abroad that are compatible with their own economic governance preferences. Both the EU and US hoped to extend the disciplines covered at the WTO in terms of trade in services, government procurement (the EU) and rules governing IPR. However, concerted action by emerging and developing countries thwarted their ambitious agenda in the Doha Round at the WTO (see Narlikar and Van Hputen 2010 ; Hopewell 2016 ). Turning to bilateral agreements, the US Trade Representative at the time, Robert Zoellick, was forthright in declaring

in Latin America–European Union relations in the twenty-first century
Nikki Ikani

The conjunctural impact of time concerns the medium term, spanning a few years. In economics, a conjuncture refers to the cyclical recurrence of economic circumstances that occur within the structural trends. Conjunctural theories offer explanations based on circumstances and conditions in particular episodes in history. For example, when we study the EU response to the Arab uprisings, we must consider that at the time Europe was in the midst of the Eurozone crisis: a sovereign debt crisis that broke out in May 2010 and left European financial and economic

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
The Neighbourhood Policy revised
Nikki Ikani

2011 ). It mirrored the ambivalent objectives among EU member states, as well as the continuing dilemma between fostering stability and promoting democracy. Within this structural context, the Arab uprisings transpired at an economically strenuous time for the Union. Europe was in the midst of the Eurozone crisis, a sovereign debt crisis that broke out in May 2010 and left European financial and economic governance in disarray. Neither the Eurozone infrastructure nor the EU infrastructure was prepared for a crisis of such a magnitude. It was a

in Crisis and change in European Union foreign policy
Thomas Prosser

European economic governance to incorporate objectives related to growth. Certain authorities envisage an EU without the euro, Höpner states that ‘Europe would be better off without the Euro’ and commends the European monetary system of 1979–98 ( 2014 : 665), yet implementation difficulties mean that most favour reform of the euro. A number of strategies have been outlined; ideas such as Eurobonds, growth orientated monetary and fiscal policies and transfer payments to periphery countries are commonly suggested. The fortification of social integration, including the

in European labour movements in crisis
Paul Copeland

achievements made during the EU’s experiment with new modes of governance. The collapse of the US housing bubble and exposure of many European banks to the US sub-prime mortgage market gradually spilled over into a financial crisis and a fully fledged Eurozone crisis. The crisis has provided an exogenous shock that has not only tested 18 EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the ESD the resilience of the European economy, but the progress made within the Lisbon decade, the robustness of EU economic governance and the unity of the Eurozone. Lisbon II attempted to

in EU enlargement, the clash of capitalisms and the European social dimension
David J. Bailey

Recession sought to advocate a coordinated supranational response that would consist of a reflationary programme focused on jobs, growth, protecting the vulnerable, achieving financial market and remuneration regulation, a tax on financial transactions and a form of economic governance that would ensure social cohesion and jobs were not forfeited by any attempt to limit public debt and deficits. Finally, any move to balance public finances should, social democrats focused on the EU level have argued, include an increase in tax revenues (secured from capital rather than

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Karlis Bukovskis and Ilvija Bruge

providing a comprehensive plan for alternative economic governance. Therefore, besides the acknowledgment that the ‘average Latvian is a social democrat’ (Urbanovičs, 2017 ), the social democratic ideology is part of the left, but as Jānis Ikstens also stresses: ‘In [Latvian] politics the Left is seen as Soviet and Russian [and] that leads to negative stereotypes’ (Kolodzieja, 2013 ). Some go even further, stating that in Latvia social democracy in public discourse is seen as synonymous with communism (Dinēvičs, 2017 ). In spite of public

in The European left and the financial crisis
Abstract only
A plea for politics at the European level
Peter J. Verovšek

seeks to enable ever-purer market competition, but that also takes social policies and workers’ rights into account. Some steps in this direction have already been taken. Although the French government has been arguing for the need for gouvernement économique – an ‘economic government’ as opposed to mere ‘economic governance’ – for some time, recently even the traditionally reluctant Germans have started to speak of Wirtschaftsregierung . Although these moves are still in the early stages, Luuk van Middelaar argues that this development is important because

in Memory and the future of Europe
Europe, nationalism and left politics
Andy Storey

EU. Varoufakis's proposed solution is not for countries to exit the Eurozone or the EU (see below) but, rather, to radically reform European integration into a much more progressive political and economic governance framework (Navarro, 2016 ), thus sidestepping (or superseding) the dilemma SYRIZA faced between Eurozone membership and austerity (discussed further below). Varoufakis is, therefore, to some extent in the tradition of left Euroscepticism, and not just that of the radical left, that identifies the problem as the current nature of

in The European left and the financial crisis