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Ian Wood

In the early years of the twentieth century, Professor Karl Lamprecht was a powerful and controversial figure in German academia, offering a universal interpretation of history that drew on an eclectic mix of politics, economics, anthropology and psychology. This article explores Mark Hovell’s experiences of working with Lamprecht at the Institut für Kultur- und Universalgeschichte [Institute for Cultural and Universal History] in Leipzig between 1912 and 1913, while also situating Hovell’s criticisms of the Lamprechtian method within wider contemporary assessments of Lamprecht’s scholarship.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Henry Miller

scale such as retailers and shopkeepers.14 The development of party identities created a market for portraits of politicians classified by party. Ryall, an engraver, and Saunders, a radical writer, were clearly aiming at this market when they launched their Conservative and Reform series of portraits. They were explicitly aimed at party supporters and promoted through the partisan press. The resultant series of engraved portraits were, however, only possible due to the development of steel engraving, which transformed the economics of reproductive printing. The

in Politics personified
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A new apology for the builder
Conor Lucey

skilled in drawing plans and elevations ‘according to the modern taste in building’.54) This formal separation of design and construction remains a persistent problem in histories of the eighteenth-​and early nineteenth-​century row house. While design historians continue to revise the origins of the division of labour and its impact on invention and manufacture, historians of urban domestic architecture generally, and of building economics particularly, have naturally focused on the off-​site standardization of parts and the impact of subcontracting on architectural

in Building reputations

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Rethinking art, media, and the audio-visual contract
Author: Ming-Yuen S. Ma

There is no soundtrack is a specific yet expansive study of sound tactics deployed in experimental media art today. It analyses how audio and visual elements interact and produce meaning, drawing from works by contemporary media artists ranging from Chantal Akerman, to Nam June Paik, to Tanya Tagaq. It then links these analyses to discussions on silence, voice, noise, listening, the soundscape, and other key ideas in sound studies. In making these connections, the book argues that experimental media art – avant-garde film, video art, performance, installation, and hybrid forms – produces radical and new audio-visual relationships that challenge and destabilize the visually-dominated fields of art history, contemporary art criticism, cinema and media studies, and cultural studies as well as the larger area of the human sciences. This book directly addresses what sound studies scholar Jonathan Sterne calls ‘visual hegemony’. It joins a growing body of interdisciplinary scholarship that is collectively sonifying the study of culture while defying the lack of diversity within the field by focusing on practitioners from transnational and diverse backgrounds. Therefore, the media artists discussed in this book are of interest to scholars and students who are exploring aurality in related disciplines including gender and feminist studies, queer studies, ethnic studies, postcolonial studies, urban studies, environmental analysis, and architecture. As such, There Is No Soundtrack makes meaningful connections between previously disconnected bodies of scholarship to build new, more complex and reverberating frameworks for the study of art, media, and sound.

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Activism and design in Italy
Author: Ilaria Vanni

Precarious objects is a book about activism and design. The context is the changes in work and employment from permanent to precarious arrangements in the twenty-first century in Italy. The book presents design interventions that address precarity as a defuturing force affecting political, social and material conditions. Precarious objects shows how design objects, called here ‘orientation devices’, recode political communication and reorient how things are imagined, produced and circulated. It also shows how design as a practice can reconfigure material conditions and prefigure ways to repair some of the effects of precarity on everyday life. Three microhistories illustrate activist repertoires that bring into play design, and design practices that are grounded in activism. While the vitality, experimental nature and traffic between theory and praxis of social movements in Italy have consistently attracted the interest of activists, students and researchers in diverse fields, there exists little in the area of design research. This is a study of design activism at the intersection of design theory and cultural research for researchers and students interested in design studies, cultural studies, social movements and Italian studies.

Kuba Szreder

2020 ). The very notion of interdependence is certainly nothing new, discussed by such feminist scholars as Judith Butler and Isabel Lorey, who shared a view of interdependence as an amelioration of the volatility of precariousness (Butler 2015 ; Lorey 2015 ). In feminist economics, the concept of interdependence was developed almost two decades ago by J.K. Gibson-Graham as a foundational idea of their community economies, a programme of ‘imagining and enacting alternatives for noncapitalist economies’ (Gibson-Graham and Cameron 2003 : 152

in The ABC of the projectariat
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The builder rehabilitated?
Conor Lucey

: O’Donnell unequivocally responded to the prevailing tastes of New York’s real estate market.4 Nonetheless, while clearly informed by an emerging standardization in construction and materials production, by regulations instituted by private landowners and city councils and by the financial risks involved in running a business, the capital return from speculative housing was not the sole motivation of the eighteenth-​century house builder –​in other words, a concern with building economics did not necessarily preclude a concern with building aesthetics. By considering the tradesman

in Building reputations
Kuba Szreder

non-commercial nature of their projects and progressive politics, might reproduce systems based on (self-)exploitation of unpaid or underpaid labour, which is an endemic problem of both artistic and academic circuits. Quite a lot of independent undertakings are dependent on the free labour of their supporters, their willingness to cooperate, ideas and enthusiasm. Jakob Jakobsen, from Copenhagen Free University, explains in detail how the economics of such self-organised platforms function

in The ABC of the projectariat
Kuba Szreder

capitalist forms of alienated labour and finding means of → commoning social production and reproduction (Federici 2012; 2017 ). J.K. Gibson-Graham tells us that the aim of community economics is to establish systems of material and social support based on the appreciation of the value of non-monetised labour, instead of monetising it directly. In the case of housework, such support includes: public childcare, which frees women of the burdens of housework; municipal grants for collective childcare; legal rights for paternal and maternal leave; provision of common

in The ABC of the projectariat