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Jacqueline Finch

In 1964 radiographs of an Egyptian mummy displayed by the, then, Gulbenkian Museum of Art and Archaeology in Durham revealed an artificial upper limb attached to a deformed lower forearm. The limb was removed for further study. It concluded that the deformity was due to pre-mortem, amputation above the wrist, the ancient embalmers applying a crude restoration. In 2005 the author undertook a detailed reappraisal of this restored limb. These findings now suggest that this individual exhibits a congenital deformity to the upper limb. Such a proposal prompts a discourse on how deformity was perceived, not only by ancient Egyptian society but by those across the ancient world. Textual sources have been selected to highlight how perfection of the physical body was prized by some cultures, contrasting this with how those who exhibited ‘otherness’,were either accepted or marginalized.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
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The earliest image of an ambulatory mummy
Jasmine Day

defiance, the work of the unnamed illustrator of the Vizetelly edition – likely its publisher Henry Vizetelly himself 8 – occupies an important place in the history of modern visual and literary depictions of Egyptian mummies and the sociopolitical discourses that they voiced. The Vizetelly illustration also embellishes Poe's vision, invoking contemporary racial theories about the ethnic identities of ancient Egyptians. An artist must necessarily reference the tone of a subject's skin, where a writer might leave such

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
Victorian reclamations of a biblical temptress
Angie Blumberg

subvert art itself. Fuelled by the prevalence of Egyptian mummies discovered, traded and ultimately commodified throughout the nineteenth century, the spectre of Mrs Potiphar's undiscovered corpse haunts discussions of aesthetic media. Ground mummy was used throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as a pigment (often called ‘Mummy Brown’) for both oil paint and glazes, and was in use by artists including Edward Burne-Jones and Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Its colour, though variable, was a light brown with sometimes a grey tinge. 69

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
Trembling rocks in sensation fiction and empire Gothic
Shelley Trower

to Egypt is taken in the narrative’s past, the leading explorer being Mr Trelawny who brought back various objects including an Egyptian mummy, that of Queen Tera. Mr Trelawny and his circle, including his daughter, Margaret, and Margaret’s devoted admirer, our narrator Malcolm Ross, later make the journey from London to Cornwall as this is a relatively isolated place where the ‘Great Experiment

in Rocks of nation
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Pasts at play
Rachel Bryant Davies
Barbara Gribling

encompass literal meaning – artefacts for use in the home and everyday experience in terms of curriculum, pastime, environment – but also embrace notions of familiarity, suitability and British national or imperial identities. It has become a cliché that ‘the past is a foreign country’: the chapters in this volume negotiate the relationship between the British nineteenth-century present and national and ‘othering’ past narratives, which could both need domesticating. Zimmerman's exploration of Egyptian mummies (and, punningly, the role of real and

in Pasts at play
Situating The Beetle within the fin-de-siècle fiction of Gothic Egypt
Ailise Bulfin

and portrayed aspects of its society and culture, ancient and modern, as the locus of grave threat. It includes texts by major popular authors such as Arthur Conan Doyle, Bram Stoker and H. Rider Haggard and by less well-known contemporaries such as H.  D. Everett and Guy Boothby, not to mention scores of ephemeral periodical tales by entirely forgotten authors. The key image to emerge was that of the vengeful Egyptian mummy which, like Stoker’s Dracula and Stevenson’s Jekyll and Hyde, has persisted into modern popular culture. Though the current treatment of the

in Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890–1915
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Eleanor Dobson

‘Some Words with a Mummy’ (1845) which was published posthumously alongside this tale in an anthology of his works in 1852. This illustration is the earliest known visual depiction of a revived Egyptian mummy, a character that later became an archetypal figure in Victorian literature. Day situates the unknown artist's vision of the fictional mummy Allamistakeo within the history of visual and literary depictions of mummies and the sociopolitical discourses they articulated, comparing the illustrator's engagement in contemporary debates with those suggested by Poe

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt in the aesthetic and decadent imaginary
Giles Whiteley

features Baudelaire lying down, wrapped in linen like an Egyptian mummy, while a statue of a Thinker stands above, meditating on his remains. 47 In this sense, the Egyptian imagery on his cenotaph compares with that of Wilde's own tomb, located in Cimetière du Père Lachaise, cut by Jacob Epstein, and which features a prominent sphinx. But in Mallarmé's reading of Baudelaire, if the Egyptian is allied with death, this is not simply a question of lifelessness: far from figuring as a petrified ‘granite’ or ‘lifeless

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
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Machen and Stoker
Andrew Smith

an alternative world of forbidden knowledge that seemingly centres on the type of pre-Christian pleasures that we have witnessed elsewhere in Machen. This is a decadent world in which amorality leads to death and Walters plays a key role in leading Mr Headley, the owner of the coin, to Dr Lipsius, who murders him and then disguises the body as an Egyptian mummy that he intends to sell to the British

in Gothic death 1740–1914
Savage vibrations in ghost stories and D. H. Lawrence’s Kangaroo
Shelley Trower

matter; whether French or Cornish the ghostly inhabitants figure as foreign to the English tourist, contributing to the sense of Cornwall as different from the England of which it is at the same time a part. The difference between the Cornish and the foreign seems collapsible, as in the case of Leon’s African savagery, or Trelawney’s daughter’s exchangeability with the Egyptian mummy. In many stories of

in Rocks of nation