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The British monarchy in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, 1991–2016
Mark McKenna

As the Queen approaches her ninetieth birthday, republicans in both major political parties have reached a consensus in recent years that there will be no move towards a republic until the post-Elizabethan era. Agreeing to wait until the monarch dies, they hope that the last residue of attachment to the monarchy will die with her, if it has not died already. During the Queen’s past four visits to

in Crowns and colonies
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Paul Jackson

but could only replace fascist politicians with other fascists. The BUF’s version of the corporate state was also based on an alternate economic system modelled in part on Mussolini’s Italy, but also clearly drawing on earlier British radical discourses, such as those of the Guild Socialists. The supposed national unity of the Elizabethan era would be rekindled and combined with a novel type of modern

in Pride in prejudice
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Alcohol and the Reformation
James Nicholls

continual wardens of the drunkards’ fraternity and corporation’, but it was a role that the English appeared keen to usurp.34 Gascoigne’s pamphlet illustrates the extent to which concerns over drinking are often overlaid with concerns over national identity. He was, of course, writing at the height of the Elizabethan era of nation-building in 12 chap1.indd 12 22/06/2009 10:52:27 A monstrous plant the political, military and cultural spheres, and he was not alone in seeing something worrisome in English attitudes to alcohol. Fifteen years later, the popular writer

in The politics of alcohol
Phil Withington

reforms were many, complex, and varied. 59 However, in terms of sanction by central government, the driving force – including urban incorporation – was Smith, Cecil and other members of their sprawling Cambridge mafia who dominated the higher echelons of royal power for much of the Edwardian and Elizabethan eras. 60 More to the point, one of the outcomes by the turn of the seventeenth century was a discernible ‘corporate system’ by which cities and boroughs – or ‘little commonwealths’, as contemporaries described them – had filled the topography of provincial England

in The plantation of Ulster
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Reform and innovation
Samantha A. Shave

of indoor relief. Inspecting the poor took different forms in different places. Some parishes instructed their assistant overseers to make enquiries into their resident and non-​resident parishioners, whilst others made decisions based on local intelligence. Inquiring into the ‘Character and conduct’ of the poor, as Sturges Bourne’s Act directed, was open to interpretation. Many parish officers in the post-​Sturges Bourne period had returned to assess the ‘deservingness’ for relief based on similar criteria to those used by parish officers during the Elizabethan

in Pauper policies
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A historiographical perspective
Susan Doran and Paulina Kewes

and the 1601 Essex rebellion. What of the longer-term significance of the constitutional issues discussed in our book? Disagreements about the relative merits of hereditary right, royal nomination, election by parliament (with or without the monarch at the helm) or statutory limitations on the succession were confined neither to the Elizabethan era nor even to the ‘long’ sixteenth century. Such debates had been a feature of earlier periods, but they were revitalized and more fully articulated from the 1530s onward due to Henry VIII’s inability to sire a son by his

in Doubtful and dangerous
The imperial imagination
Andrekos Varnava

only withstood the Ottoman onslaught for a year. English Orientalist texts of the Elizabethan era fed the imperial imagination. Shakespeare’s Othello was a tale of conflict on the Christian–Muslim frontier with an Oriental mercenary, who did not belong to his adopted Occidental land, trying to hold out against the Muslims during the Ottoman conquest of Famagusta in 1571. 24 Although

in British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878–1915
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The impact of Sturges Bourne’s reforms
Samantha A. Shave

by the select vestry of Shipley, which, in the 1820s, decided to stop providing tools to those employed by the parish, except ‘Bars, Malls, and Pikes for Stone digging’.159 These were all measures introduced with the intention of saving the parish money. In particular, the inspection of the poor and attempts to gauge individuals’ character and conduct were illustrative of a more residualist relief system at work. This enabling legislation tended to reinforce the distinction, first developed in the Elizabethan era, between the ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ poor

in Pauper policies
Louise Hill Curth

two aims; to help standardize remedies prepared and dispensed by apothecaries, and for physicians to dictate the only medicines that they were allowed to dispense.39 There were large numbers of apothecaries in both urban and rural areas. In London alone, it is estimated that they had increased eightfold between the end of the Elizabethan era and the beginning of the eighteenth century. Within the city itself, they were mainly concentrated around the central commercial thoroughfares of Fenchurch Street, Bucklersbury and Cheap [sic] and St Paul’s. Many apothecaries

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
The origins and endurance of club regulation
Duncan Wilson

, kidney transplantation and the discovery of DNA’s helical structure. These successful projects involved no external planning and were all ‘developed through the single-minded efforts of a few dedicated individual scientists and doctors’.89 At a time when professions were highly regarded, this research further increased public confidence in science and medicine.90 Celebratory media coverage portrayed doctors and scientists as pioneering figures who were central to a ‘new Elizabethan era’ of progress and discovery.91 When ‘science and expertise were synonymous’, both in

in The making of British bioethics