The visual images of Queen Elizabeth I displayed in contemporary portraits and perpetuated and developed in more recent media, such as film and television, make her one of the most familiar and popular of all British monarchs. This book is a collection of essays that examine the diversity of the queen's extensive iconographical repertoire, focusing on both visual and textual representations of Elizabeth, in portraiture, literature, contemporary sermons, speeches and alchemical treatises. It falls into three sections. The first part looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as the Prophetesse Deborah, the suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. When Queen Elizabeth I, the first female Protestant monarch, was enthroned in 1558, male poets, artists, theologians, and statesmen struggled to represent this new phenomenon. The second part turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The last part focuses on the ways in which the classical world was plundered for modes of imaging and figuring the queen. Finally, the book summarises the enormously wide range of Elizabeth's iconographical repertoire of its appeal, and provides a fitting end to a book which ranges so widely across the allegorical personae of the queen.
. Their work also examines the notion, common in alchemical
literature, that women possess a unique, privileged and unsettling
knowledge of the secrets of Nature.
Part II turns to one of the major enterprises of the
Elizabethanera, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the
eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the
Virgin Queen. The naming of the land in this way
(eds), Renaissance Bodies , pp. 198–217; and ‘Civic buildings and courtier houses: new techniques and materials for architectural ornament’, in D. Gaimster and P. Stamper (eds), The Age of Transition: The Archaeology of English Culture 1400–1600 (Oxford, 1997), pp. 105–13.
11 M. Girouard, Robert Smythson and the Architecture of the ElizabethanEra (South Brunswick, NJ, 1967); M. Airs, The Making of the English Country House 1500–1640 (London, 1975); and N. Cooper, ‘The gentry house in the Age of Transition’, in Gaimster and Stamper
is in fact for Rowe’s play of 1702, where the hero is
presented as a calm philosopher-prince and presented also as
modelled on William III! In Puddock and Dunoran, the Chattesworth
ladies have chosen husbands who mediate between the undeniable
violence of the Elizabethanera when Ireland was finally conquered
and the uneasy, smoke-clouded politics of an
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s court
’s purpose in writing the Arcadia also relies on the
suitability of Greville’s ‘A Dedication to Sir Philip
Sidney’ for reading the Arcadia . However, given that it was
completed in the Jacobean (between 1610 and 1612) rather than the Elizabethanera, in a different political and philosophical climate, its suitability
is open to doubt. Greville’s early career under the reign of James
I was marked by the
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s
Richard James Wood
pass through any straits or latitudes of good or ill fortune, might (as in a glass) see how to set a good countenance upon all the discountenances of adversity, and a stay upon the exorbitant smilings of chance. 21
James’s conception of Sidney’s purpose in writing the Arcadia also relies on the suitability of Greville’s ‘A Dedication to Sir Philip Sidney’ for reading the Arcadia . However, given that it was completed in the Jacobean (between 1610 and 1612) rather than the Elizabethanera, in a different political and philosophical climate, its suitability
The Digby Mary Magdalen and Lewis Wager’s Life and Repentaunce of Marie Magdalene
of the evolution
of anti-theatrical writings from Plato to the present day, and contains
chapters on anti-theatrical Lollardy and Puritanism.
56 Badir, The Maudlin Impression, p. 43.
57 STC 19865.
58 STC 6518.
59 STC 1059.
60 STC 6501. Though he does not treat the plays listed here, for a
more extensive treatment of the secularisation of the saint play see
John Wasson, ‘The Secular Saint Plays of the ElizabethanEra’, in
Davidson, The Saint Play in Medieval Europe, pp. 241–60. For a consideration of The Honest Whore as a Magdalene play see Frédérique
Thomas Middleton, the book, and the genre of continuation
Jeffrey Todd Knight
Criticism , 53.1 (2011), 53–82, which I quote
The ‘ghost complaint’, in
which a female victim of male sexual violence is summoned from
the dead to speak, was popularized in the Elizabethanera. The
best known example outside of the Lucretia nexus is Samuel
experiment in what Richard Helgerson has called ‘forms of
nationhood,’ and can arguably take their place alongside
other ambitious volumes of the Elizabethanera, such as
Spenser’s The Faerie Queene , Coke’s
Institutes of the Lawes of England , Camden’s
Britannia , Speed’s Theater of the Empire of
Great Britain , Drayton’s Poly
ment that the emergence of a new literary subject in the late Elizabethanera was intrinsically linked with the expression of shame: indeed, selfpromotion and self-articulation are both ‘sources of shame’ (p. 220). If
we read Mary Wroth’s sonnet sequence in this perspective, then we see
a female poet grappling with the necessary pursuit of (shameful) selfassertion. The sonnets can in fact be read as an attempt at redeeming the
shame-ridden female subject from the stigma of self-expression, a stigma
made worse by the fact that she was writing her poems in