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The iconography of Elizabeth I

The visual images of Queen Elizabeth I displayed in contemporary portraits and perpetuated and developed in more recent media, such as film and television, make her one of the most familiar and popular of all British monarchs. This book is a collection of essays that examine the diversity of the queen's extensive iconographical repertoire, focusing on both visual and textual representations of Elizabeth, in portraiture, literature, contemporary sermons, speeches and alchemical treatises. It falls into three sections. The first part looks at the diverse range of religious and quasi-religious images that were employed by and about Elizabeth, such as the Prophetesse Deborah, the suggestive parallel with Joan of Arc, and finally Lady Alchymia, the female deity in alchemical treatises. When Queen Elizabeth I, the first female Protestant monarch, was enthroned in 1558, male poets, artists, theologians, and statesmen struggled to represent this new phenomenon. The second part turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The last part focuses on the ways in which the classical world was plundered for modes of imaging and figuring the queen. Finally, the book summarises the enormously wide range of Elizabeth's iconographical repertoire of its appeal, and provides a fitting end to a book which ranges so widely across the allegorical personae of the queen.

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Annaliese Connolly and Lisa Hopkins

. Their work also examines the notion, common in alchemical literature, that women possess a unique, privileged and unsettling knowledge of the secrets of Nature. Part II turns to one of the major enterprises of the Elizabethan era, the attempt to colonise the New World, during which the eastern seaboard of America was renamed Virginia in celebration of the Virgin Queen. The naming of the land in this way

in Goddesses and Queens
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s court
Richard Wood

’s purpose in writing the Arcadia also relies on the suitability of Greville’s ‘A Dedication to Sir Philip Sidney’ for reading the Arcadia . However, given that it was completed in the Jacobean (between 1610 and 1612) rather than the Elizabethan era, in a different political and philosophical climate, its suitability is open to doubt. Greville’s early career under the reign of James I was marked by the

in Essex
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s court
Richard James Wood

pass through any straits or latitudes of good or ill fortune, might (as in a glass) see how to set a good countenance upon all the discountenances of adversity, and a stay upon the exorbitant smilings of chance. 21 James’s conception of Sidney’s purpose in writing the Arcadia also relies on the suitability of Greville’s ‘A Dedication to Sir Philip Sidney’ for reading the Arcadia . However, given that it was completed in the Jacobean (between 1610 and 1612) rather than the Elizabethan era, in a different political and philosophical climate, its suitability

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue
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Normative arrays of sexuality
Helen Cooper

go well beyond the places where he cites Chaucer by name, though those moments carry particular weight and have received particular attention. As Judith H. Anderson argues elsewhere in this volume, the reflections and refractions of Chaucer’s meanings can take many forms; and even when Spenser does not explicitly name his predecessor, his references to him are usually clearly intended to be recognised by his readers. The richness and breadth of allusions to Chaucer’s work across the Elizabethan era show how deeply the

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
A Philippist reading of Sidney’s New Arcadia
Richard James Wood

-hegemonic’ (Kaske’s term) religious position adopted by Elizabeth and that adopted by Edmund Spenser. With reference to the prevailing Puritan iconoclasm of the late Elizabethan era, Kaske notes, ‘on the Continent, Lutherans retained some images and restrained iconoclasm; but in Elizabethan England the Lutheran influence was far outweighed by iconoclastic Zwinglianism and Calvinism’. 32 For Kaske, ‘the only vocal English Protestants in Elizabethan times who tried … to conserve some images were Spenser and Elizabeth’. 33 This has been seen as Elizabeth’s preference for ‘an

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue
Shakespeare’s challenges to performativity
Yan Brailowsky

. 24 According to this reasoning, which distinguishes prophecies from their ‘germinant accomplishments’, one could argue that some Shakespearean prophecies survived the Elizabethan era in which they were written, becoming true post facto , as when one suggests that the late tragedies of the sixteenth century may have announced the tribulations of the Civil War in the seventeenth century – an argument made by Richard Wilson

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
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Laetitia Sansonetti, Rémi Vuillemin, and Enrica Zanin

Absence (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), and M.B. Moore, Desiring Voices: Women Sonneteers and Petrarchism (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011). 7 For a call to study texts of the mid-century or of the early Elizabethan era, see in particular C. Shrank

in The early modern English sonnet
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From commentary on poetry to poetry as commentary
William John Kennedy

wrote for an intimate court circle with little or no expectation of reaching a wider readership. Second, Tottel likely solicited the volume’s many ‘anonymous’ poems from Inns of Court students as responses to and commentaries upon Wyatt, Surrey and their noble confrères. Third, the proliferation of its editions into the later Elizabethan era left a legacy for succeeding poets to

in The early modern English sonnet
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Thomas Middleton, the book, and the genre of continuation
Jeffrey Todd Knight

’, Criticism , 53.1 (2011), 53–82, which I quote below. 53 The ‘ghost complaint’, in which a female victim of male sexual violence is summoned from the dead to speak, was popularized in the Elizabethan era. The best known example outside of the Lucretia nexus is Samuel

in Formal matters