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The Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis de XII Comitatibus of 1185
Susan M. Johns

facilitate analysis of the broader contexts of noblewomen’s lives. Traditional and empirical historians have generally studied the Rotuli de Dominabus in the context of debates about the nature of royal lordship in the late twelfth century, examining, for example, the character of Angevin government and reform. This has led to an emphasis on the effectiveness or otherwise of Henry II’s government, which has been analysed either narrowly in England or in the wider context of the nature of the Angevin empire. Similarly the roots of Magna Carta have been traced to the reign

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

affected female sigillographic practice, since the appearance of non-noble women’s seals appears contemporarily in both regions of the Angevin empire.178 Although Scotland was politically independent of the Angevin empire there was cultural symbiosis, with evidence that women were using seals in the mid-twelfth century, since Isabella, the wife of William Wallace, co-sealed a charter with him c. 1160.179 In the mid-twelfth century Margaret duchess of Brittany, the wife of Conan duke of Brittany (d. 1171) and sister of William the Lion, sealed a grant of land in Forset

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Theo Riches

state was, after the abeyance of Charlemagne’s personal military activity, the new palace complex of Aachen. It was here that Carolingian aristocrats were co-opted into imperial politics. It was from here that the capitularies were sent to every corner of the biggest European empire since the fall of the Roman West. It was from here that the moral revolution discernible in countless Church tracts and

in Frankland
Brigitte Kasten

their dead husbands and lack of responsibility towards the children they had had together. This social and familial disapproval of widow remarriage was not completely without foundation. Jens Uwe Krause’s study of widows and orphans in the Roman Empire has shown that the large number of widows aged between twenty and forty was a considerable social problem, and it was in practice extremely difficult for most widows to secure their own and their children’s future by remarriage. An increased dos for the new husband could help matters only at the cost of reducing the

in Law, laity and solidarities
Searching for the local
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

landscape was complicated by the interests of a powerful monastic institution, although one might say it was already complicated by the interests, and presence, of a powerful landowner. Here, in north-west Iberia, far beyond the reach of the legacy of the Carolingian Empire, we have elements of many of the themes that have recurred in this book. It hardly needs saying that the source material available for the early Middle Ages does not allow reconstruction of the feelings and the nuances of personal relationships of individual peasants. There is a limit to what can be

in Neighbours and strangers
Colin Veach

aristocratic lordship in Ireland was far from ideal for John. Lacy supremacy in Ireland harked back to the days of the elder Hugh, and John’s embarrassment in 1185. For John, the limitation of magnate power was essential. The ensuing period in Ireland was one of conflict between royal and aristocratic lordship, soon to be replicated throughout the Angevin empire. Indeed, it is intriguing to speculate what might have happened had the baronial revolts in Ireland (1207–8) and England and Wales (1215–17) not been separated by seven years. In the event, the respite allowed King

in Lordship in four realms
Colin Veach

wife) is an impressive display of the strength of his brand of aristocratic lordship, but it also cost Walter dearly. Burdened with his great debts to the Crown and Jewish money-­lenders, Walter was an invalid by 1237, blind shortly thereafter, and dead by 1241. The great Lacy inheritance, which once extended across four realms of the Plantagenet empire, and had found its strength in the territorial integrity of its honors, was then carved up between his two granddaughters. The return of Hugh de Lacy: 1222–3 The annals of Dunstable record under 1222 that Hugh de Lacy

in Lordship in four realms
Colin Veach

underestimated. As it happened, the death of John’s elder brother, Geoffrey, duke of Brittany, brought an abrupt end to these plans. John received the news, and his father’s decision to cancel the Irish expedition, while waiting for a favourable wind at Chester. Henry sent Philip of Worcester in John’s stead.2 The deaths of Hugh de Lacy and Duke Geoffrey roughly coincided with a shift in policy at the French court from one of pragmatic compromise to outright obstinacy in its dealings with the head of the Angevin empire.3 Thereafter, Henry II found himself opposed at every turn

in Lordship in four realms
Roads, colonization and environmental transformation in the Anglo-Scottish border zone, c. 1100 to c. 1300
Richard Oram

have focused on its antiquity, emphasizing its origins in the Roman military system that was laid out in the first and second centuries ce, but have given a sense  – more implicit in the discussion than articulated explicitly – of the immutability of that ancient system and of the absence of development of new routes beyond its basic pattern throughout the medieval period. The regional road network inherited from the Roman past has continued to be seen as fulfilling the same function as it held in the empire’s heyday – as a control mechanism through which the

in Roadworks
Lower office holders
Bernhard Zeller, Charles West, Francesca Tinti, Marco Stoffella, Nicolas Schroeder, Carine van Rhijn, Steffen Patzold, Thomas Kohl, Wendy Davies, and Miriam Czock

Europe. The latter were expected to follow different sets of norms, such as those set out in the Carolingian episcopal normative texts issued by bishops, exclusively meant for the clergy, and they were subject to different courts. There were also marked differences between lay office holders and priests regarding marriage and inheritance. The sources mention a bewildering range of titles for subordinate office holders: in the Carolingian Empire alone we find gastaldi , centuriones , centenarii , sculdhaizi , tribuni , vicarii , vicecomites , decani , actores

in Neighbours and strangers