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Tales of origins in medieval and early modern France and England
Dominique Goy- Blanquet

fake, written in clumsy medieval Latin some 400 years after Constantine’s death. His De falso credita et ementita Constantini donatione declamatio was first translated into English in 1525, before Henry VIII had any thoughts of divorce. 15 The payment of a tribute to Rome had long been a sore point. When Henry VIII declared to the world that ‘this realm of England is an empire’, there was

in Interweaving myths in Shakespeare and his contemporaries
Eric Klingelhofer

of the proto-colonial or ‘Plantation’ period, and archaeological research on the Munster colony in the Irish Republic has followed the initiative of work undertaken on the Ulster colony in Northern Ireland. 4 Proto-colonial activities The context of colonization Elizabethan colonization is often viewed as something outside of – separate from – the overall course of European expansion. On the east side of the Atlantic, it was once seen as an expression of the British Empire to come

in Castles and Colonists
An archaeology of Elizabethan Ireland

This book examines life in the leading province of Elizabeth I's nascent empire. It shows how an Ireland of colonising English farmers and displaced Irish ‘savages’ were ruled by an imported Protestant elite from their fortified manors and medieval castles. The book displays how a generation of English ‘adventurers’ including such influential intellectual and political figures as Spenser and Ralegh, tried to create a new kind of England, one that gave full opportunity to their Renaissance tastes and ambitions. Based on decades of research, it details how archaeology had revealed the traces of a short-lived, but significant, culture that has, until now, been eclipsed in ideological conflicts between Tudor queens, Hapsburg hegemony and native Irish traditions.

Abstract only
John Drakakis

, despite the opinion of Hesiod, Homer, and Jove himself. Now, as always, one nod from Plutus turns everything sacred upside down. By his decisions, wars, peace, empires, plans, judgements, assemblies, marriages, treaties, pacts, pires, plans, laws, arts, sports, solemnities (I am almost out of breath) – in short, all public and private affairs are governed. Without his help, all the poets’ multitude of gods, even, I may boldly say, the chief ones, either would not exist or would have to live leanly at home. Not even

in Shakespeare’s resources
John Drakakis

Titus, the most curtius and liberall prince that ever swayed the empire of Rome. 99 In the one account, a secular mimetic appeal is made to actual events, while in the other, secular and biblical history provide the patterns for the operations of power and the universal positioning of ‘authority’. Shakespeare’s play alludes through Claudius to a biblical event and continues the motif of ‘tragicall history’, although the pattern itself of tragic narratives had a literary and oral pedigree in

in Shakespeare’s resources
John Drakakis

culminates in the inauguration of the Roman Empire. And in Othello a revenge is sought for an imaginary offence. Behind all of this is Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy in which Hieronimo, charged with dispensing justice, cannot secure it for the murder of his son Horatio. In the cases of both Hieronimo and Titus (and perhaps Othello), the ‘madness’ that is induced by the failure to secure justice is explicit, as well as speaking of a much more widespread social malaise and disorder. All of these examples can be brought within

in Shakespeare’s resources
Abstract only
Accession, union, nationhood
Christopher Ivic

. Richard Helgerson opens his groundbreaking Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England with a list of seminal texts, including William Camden’s Britannia , Michael Drayton’s Poly-Olbion , William Shakespeare’s English history plays and John Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine ; of these texts he has this to say: ‘[n]ever before or since have so many works of such magnitude and such long-lasting effect been devoted to England by the members of a single generation’. 1 Camden’s Latin Britannia was republished in 1607, and in 1610 an English

in The subject of Britain, 1603–25
‘Minde on honour fixed’
Author: Jean R. Brink

This revisionary biographical study documents that Spenser was the protégé of a circle of churchmen who expected him to take holy orders, but between 1574, when he left Pembroke College, and 1579, when he published the Shepheardes Calender, he decided against a career in the church. At Pembroke College and in London, Spenser watched the Elizabethan establishment crack down on independent thinking. The sequestration of Edmund Grindal was a watershed event in his early life, as was his encounter with Philip Sidney, the dedicatee of to the Shepheardes Calender. Once Spenser exchanged the role of shepherd-priest for that of shepherd-poet, he understood that his role was not just to celebrate the victories of Protestant England over the Spanish empire, immortalize in verse the virtues of Gloriana’s knights, but also to ‘fashion a noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline’. The received biography of the early Spenser emphasizes Gabriel Harvey, who is reported to have been Spenser’s tutor. Brink shows that Harvey could not have been Spenser’s tutor and argues that Harvey published Familiar Letters (1580) to promote his ambition to be named University Orator at Cambridge. Brink shows that Spenser had already received preferment. His life is contextualized by comparisons with contemporaries including Philip Sidney, Lodowick Bryskett, Shakespeare, and Sir Walter Ralegh. Brink’s provocative study, based upon a critical re-evaluation of manuscript and printed sources, emphasizes Philip Sidney over Harvey and shows that Spenser’s appointment as secretary to Lord Grey was a preferment celebrated even years later by Camden.

Shakespeare on the march
David J. Baker

unite the two kingdoms under his royal sway, he would forge a new ‘empire’ out of them: ‘Great Britain’. Thereby, he would remake his subjects as well, fashioning ‘Britons’ where before there had been English and Scots. In the closing decade of the sixteenth century, James had ‘made no effort to prevent his borderers from plundering the English wardenries’ 5 and march relations had deteriorated. As the

in Shakespeare and Scotland

Ralph Knevet's Supplement of the Faery Queene (1635) is a narrative and allegorical work, which weaves together a complex collection of tales and episodes, featuring knights, ladies, sorcerers, monsters, vertiginous fortresses and deadly battles – a chivalric romp in Spenser's cod medieval style. The poem shadows recent English history, and the major military and political events of the Thirty Years War. But the Supplement is also an ambitiously intertextual poem, weaving together materials from mythic, literary, historical, scientific, theological, and many other kinds of written sources. Its encyclopaedic ambitions combine with Knevet's historical focus to produce an allegorical epic poem of considerable interest and power.

This new edition of Knevet's Supplement, the first scholarly text of the poem ever published, situates it in its literary, historical, biographical, and intellectual contexts. An extensive introduction and copious critical commentary, positioned at the back of the book, will enable students and scholars alike to access Knevet's complicated and enigmatic meanings, structures, and allusions.