Changing approaches to hunting constitute an important theme in human history. This book uses hunting as one focus for the complex interaction of Europeans with Africans and Indians. It seeks to illuminate the nature of imperial power when exercised in the relationship between humans and the natural world. The main geographical emphasis is on southern, Central and East Africa, as well as South Asia, but reference is made to other parts of Africa and Asia and to the effects of white settlement elsewhere. The great hunters of the ancient world offered protection to their subjects' life and limb and to their crops by destroying wild predators. In Britain the nineteenth-century hunting cult had an extraordinary range of cultural manifestations. Pheasant covert, grouse moor and deer forest, explored and dominated by humans in the Hunt, became prime elements in nineteenth-century Romanticism. Hunting was an important part of the pre-colonial economy and diet of many African peoples. The importance of hunting was very apparent at the court of Mzilikazi, king of the Ndebele. As the animal resources of southern Africa became more important to the international economy in the first decades of the nineteenth century they came to be studied and hunted for science and sport. This apotheosis of the hunting mentality survived at least into the inter-war years and was indeed inherited by the Indianised Indian Civil Service and army in the years leading up to independence. Hunting remains important to those who continue to exercise global power.
The book shows how people have come to approach the writing of imperial histories in the early twenty-first century. It explores the social and political contexts that informed the genesis and development of the Studies in Imperialism series, and the conceptual links it has sought to forge between empire and metropolitan culture. The book provides an insightful account of John MacKenzie's 'Orientalism': the problems of 'power' and 'agency'. The 'MacKenziean moment' needs to be read historically, as a product of the 'delayed arrival of decolonising sensibilities', where contemporary popular phenomena and new types of scholarship integrated Britain and its empire. Sexuality made early appearances in the Series through the publication of 'Empire and Sexuality'. MacKenzie's 'Empire of Nature', 'Imperialism and the Natural World', and 'Museums and Empire' convey the impact of his scholarship in the themes of exploration, environment and empire. The historical geographies of British colonialism have enjoyed a prominent place in the Series, and the book explores the ways in which different 'spatial imaginations' have been made possible. Discussions on colonial policing during the depression years, and on immigrant welfare during and after decolonisation, take their cue from MacKenzie's European Empires and the People. The later nineteenth century witnessed the interaction of many diasporas, which in turn produced new modes of communication. By dealing with the idea of the 'Third British Empire' and the role of the Indian press during and after the British Raj, the book repositions British imperial histories within a broader set of global transformations.
MacKenzie and the Studies in Imperialism series appeared on the scene. Their impact on how we think about the relationship of exploration, empire and the environment is considerable. No single work was more important and innovative in this regard than MacKenzie’s The Empire of Nature (1988). 5 In this book, MacKenzie took up a topic that had been hiding in plain sight – the British landed elite’s fondness
-Century Scotland (Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 2017). Patrick Duff (1742–1803) was a high-ranking officer in the Bengal Artillery and an avid hunter. See also V. R. Mandala, Shooting a Tiger: Big-Game Hunting and Conservation in Colonial India (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019). 4 J. M. MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988), Chapter 7. The memoir literature of hunters in India is very extensive indeed. To a certain degree, the fascination with hunting was also linked to
). 21 John M. MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University press, 1997), p. 6. 22 Patrick Wolfe, ‘Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native’, Journal of Genocide Research , 8:4 (2006), 388. 23
( Manchester : Manchester University Press , 2016 ); J. McAleer and J. M. MacKenzie (eds), Exhibiting the Empire: Cultures of Display and the British Empire ( Manchester : Manchester University Press , 2015 ); N. Chambers , Joseph Banks and the British Museum: The World of Collecting, 1770–1830 ( London : Pickering & Chatto , 2007 ). 33 J. M. MacKenzie , The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism ( Manchester : Manchester University Press , 1997 ); M. Jasanoff , Edge of Empire: Conquest and Collecting in the East
’, International History Review , 15 (1993) , 714–24; J. M. MacKenzie, ‘Empire and National Identities: The Case of Scotland’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society , sixth series, 8 (1998), 215–31 ; J. M. MacKenzie, Empires of Nature and the Nature of Empires: Imperialism, Scotland and the Environment (East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 1997) , pp. 64–5; J. M. MacKenzie, ‘Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English Worlds?’ A Four-Nation Approach to the History of the British Empire’, History Compass , 6 (2008), 1244–63 . 28 R. J. Finlay, ‘Caledonia or North Britain
here, however. Most importantly, see John MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester, 1997 ). 58 Hough, Victoria and Albert , 163. 59 Arthur Balfour Haig to Queen Victoria, 27 August
. 3 Willie Orr, Deer Forests, Landlords and Crofters, Edinburgh, 1982. 4 John M. MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature, Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism , Manchester, 1988, ch. 7 ; Scott Bennett, ‘Shikar and the Raj’, South Asia , 7, 1984, pp. 72
Imperial Assemblage Held at Delhi of the First Day of January, 1877 , typescript, India Office Library and Records; John M. Mackenzie, Propaganda and Empire , Manchester 1984 ; Paul Greenhalgh, Ephemeral Vistas , Manchester 1988 and John M. MacKenzie, The Empire of Nature , Manchester 1988 , chapter 7