Berwick, Thomas Theodorus Deacon, Thomas Chadwick, James Dawson, Andrew Blyde, Donald Macdonald Esq, the Rev. Mr Thomas Coppoch, the Rev. Mr Robert Lyon, Edmund Clavering, John Hamilton Esq, James Bradshaw, Alexander Leith, and Andrew Wood (Edinburgh, 1750), p. 13. See also the last speeches of Sir John Ashton and Archibald Cameron in the Illustrative documents.
22 John Bossy, The EnglishCatholic Community 1570–1850 (London, 1976), pp. 172–81.
23 Miller, James II , p. 153; Ó Ciardha, Ireland and the Jacobite Cause , p. 23; John Watts, Hugh
very well either. Correspondingly he and the EnglishCatholic coterie with which he initially surrounded himself at St Germain soon recreated the introverted counsels that had led to his expulsion from England. In particular, John Drummond, the efficient but hated Earl of Melfort, reassumed, and soon redoubled, his former influence over his royal master. 3 The formal declarations of policy initially produced by the government-in-exile were correspondingly uncompromising. They amounted to little more than a summons to James’s erstwhile subjects to return to their
Whig: The Struggle in the Constituencies (London, 1970); ‘Whigs and Tories Dim Their Glories’, in John Cannon (ed.), The Whig Ascendancy: Colloquies on Hanoverian England (London, 1981), pp. 51–70. Cf. The Butcher: The Duke of Cumberland and the Suppression of the ’45 (London, 1981).
31 Toffey, A Woman Nobly Planned: Fact and Myth in the Legacy of Flora Macdonald (Durham, NC, 1997); King, Jane Barker, Exile: A Literary Career 1675–1725 (Oxford, 2000); Walker, ‘“When God shall restore them to their kingdoms”: Nuns, Exiled Stuarts, and English
France, or possibly Sweden, but pledged that if he could not secure such a force they would rise anyway. 19 It seems safe to assume that they, too, were dazzled by the apparent support for James’s cause being manifested on the streets of towns and cities all over England.
To take advantage of this nationwide plebeian unrest, however, the English Jacobites and their new Tory allies effectively needed to build a nationwide conspiracy in a hurry. Outside the EnglishCatholic community, who for over two decades since the Revolution had accumulated secret arms
For all practical purposes, then, the English Jacobite movement began life based on an irreducible minimum of support among the political nation and the population at large. That loyalist core consisted of courtier-aristocrats like Ailesbury and Middleton (at that time both still Protestant and in England) and former officers like Sir John Fenwick, plus the EnglishCatholic community as a whole. Beyond them lay a scattering of eccentric individuals and personal friends of the deposed king, such as Edward Nosworthy and William Penn. 74 The revival of Jacobitism in
’s Dutch rebels for the second half of her reign. Philip, despite his ostensible outrage at Elizabeth’s dirty tactics, showed little compunction about secretly supporting EnglishCatholic plotters who planned to murder her and in sending what arms and monies he could spare to aid Hugh O’Neill in Ireland. In the same vein Cardinal Jules Mazarin overcame his disgust with the English Republicans who had overthrown and executed Charles I sufficiently well to ally with them against Spain 1656–60, and Louis XIV openly supported both the revolt of the Portuguese Braganzas