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The British Order of St John of Jerusalem and the Red Cross in the Spanish civil wars of the 1870s
Jon Arrizabalaga
Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez
, and
J. Carlos García-Reyes

Confederate States in the American Civil War. 20 De Havilland had worked as a translator for the US embassy in Madrid before serving in Spain under Don Carlos – the Legitimist pretender – where he became a ‘general’ of the Carlist army. In the investiture ceremony at Irache, De la Poer was escorted by a number of Knights Hospitaller, including Lord George Beaumont, an English Catholic nobleman and ardent supporter of Don Carlos, who represented the Carlists in England. ‘General’ de Havilland and Lord Beaumont appear to have been commissioned by the British Order of St John

in The Red Cross Movement