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Abstract only
Murray Stewart Leith and Duncan Sim

refugees and asylum seekers. So the ethnic geography of the country has changed over the years and Scotland has become a more diverse and multicultural society. In this chapter, we begin by examining the 2011 census data to illustrate the various identities and ethnicities within the country. We then seek to explain how this pattern has evolved, by describing the various migrant groups who have made their home in Scotland, the changes that have taken place in recent years and we subsequently explore the concept of multiculturalism in Scotland, together with ongoing

in Scotland
Witnessing, retribution and domestic reform
John Borneman

11 Reconciliation after ethnic cleansing: witnessing, retribution and domestic reform John Borneman    conditions that might make possible reconciliation after ethnic cleansing? This chapter addresses reconciliation in light of specific ethnic cleansings and ‘ethnicisations’, with a focus on the most recent example in Bosnia. It neither elaborates a specific case nor makes specific historical–cultural comparisons. The potential contribution is theoretical, specifying psycho-social terms and processes integral to reconciliation after violent conflicts. The

in Potentials of disorder
Scenarios in south east Europe
Christian Giordano

4 Land reforms and ethnic tensions: scenarios in south east Europe Christian Giordano Introduction: ‘Staatsnation’ and the ‘purity myth’    and eastern Europe the specific combination of territory, language, creed with citizenship and/or nationality, is generally perceived as an invariable and inviolable heritage of individual and collective ‘identities’ (Conte 1995: 138). It is a widespread belief that can be found even in the most common aspects of everyday life. This belief reaches its political–institutional achievement in the concept of

in Potentials of disorder
Timothy Longman

Introduction Beginning in 1990, the small Central African country of Rwanda was shaken by a pro-democracy movement and a rebel invasion, led by exiled members of the minority Tutsi ethnic group. The government responded to the dual pressures of protest and war by offering political reforms while simultaneously seeking to regain popularity with the members of the majority Hutu group by stirring up anti-Tutsi ethnic sentiments. Both a number of new domestic human rights groups and international human rights organisations documented the regime’s repression of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

collaborate with the state’ ( Vlassenroot and Raeymaekers, 2008 : 50). Governance is not a static ‘thing’, but a negotiated process between politicians, customary authorities, ethnic associations, social movements, armed groups, churches, multinational corporations, the national army and international and national NGOs. These negotiation arenas are informal: ‘embedded in social relations’ ( Hagmann and Péclard, 2010 : 551). In order to operate, MSF needs to build up and maintain an extensive network to communicate with, and receive security reassurances from, relevant

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

little more about my work and how the history of the Biafra war still affects Nigeria and the world. Bertrand: Can I just pick up a little bit on this Arua, because your work is very good at pointing out what Biafra or Biafran meant. In particular, you point out that within Biafra there was not a simple monolithic Igbo regime and that there were minority ethnic groups involved. So when one talks of a revival of Biafran autonomist politics today, does it strictly map on the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

scant resources for health and other public services. This system had encouraged provincial leaders and military commanders’ growing demands for a share in state resources, and their using mutiny and violence as bargaing tools. To ensure the loyalty of their armed constituents while maintaining an uneven distribution of the spoils to their own benefit, local commanders relied on military units formed along tribal lines, giving the appearance of ethnic conflicts, or, as the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action1
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos

. Moreover, important topics or questions remain to be explored by further research, including the practical ways in which humanitarianism can engage in gender-transformative action, its complementarity to the longstanding work of feminist activists, and the relationship between humanitarian action and other cultural identity factors, such as race, ethnicity, class, caste, age, disability and legal status. Definitions Building on Enloe (2004 : 4

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali

female interlocutors’ personal income is redistributed within kinship networks, who manages family resources and how women themselves benefit from the support of other family members. This approach, of course, draws inspiration from longstanding scholarship on the importance of kinship in the Middle East (cf. Joseph, 1994 , 2004 ) and the diversity and strength of ethnic, religious and regional groups in pre-war Syria ( Stevens, 2016 ). Before 2011, women cemented

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar, Benjamin J. Spatz, Alex de Waal, Christopher Newton, and Daniel Maxwell

the PM rather than on the basis of co-ethnicity, and siding with the government against an overwhelmingly co-ethnic armed opposition in the state. PM analysis could have helped humanitarians understand that this group was pivotal to state politics while also indispensable to the government effort to retake and maintain control of the state and its oilfields ( Craze et al. , 2016 ). The PMF is therefore best used as one tool among several for understanding politics

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs