and readers to position their faith within everydaylife and
extraordinary life-cycle events for purposes of prayer, comfort, and
building community. Most, but not all, of the correspondents were
Protestant Nonconformists. Where the friends were from different
Protestant denominations, sharing life-cycle events was one way of
reaffirming similarities and overcoming difference in doctrines or
the institutions of religion. All of the friends take comfort in
eschatological doctrines at moments of grief; consider
the end of her life. In adolescence she enjoyed the indulgence of a private space
in which to express hopes, fears and yearnings. In her early twenties the journals became a site of more experimental writing; they contain reflections upon
her reading and the minute details of her everydaylife. Despite the scope they
offered her to ‘try out’ different styles and voices she regards her journalling as
second-order writing. The journals provided opportunity to practise writing in
the same way as she routinely practised the piano. They did not fulfil her literary
The three surviving volumes of Stonley’s
personal diary record the everyday experiences of his family and
household, including numerous references to births, deaths and
marriages which took place within his extended social circle. What
is particularly intriguing about Stonley’s diary entries is
their combination of social, material and financial details, for
both everydaylife and unusual events. Through analysis of the
life-cycle events recorded in the diaries, this
so it is necessary to move beyond the typical generalizations found in the
history of medicine. Like the other contributors in this volume, this
chapter aims to explore the presence of magical elements in everydaylife
during the modern period, and thereby broaden the usual location of magical
practice in the medieval and early modern periods. 3 The chronological focus of the following
discussion is defined by two major
in inexorable progress and rejected all other-worldly truths …. Universal care, which insured everyone against accident, sickness, [and] old age …. stands as a substitute for Godly providence.’ The bishops also believed that unfettered competition in business and in relations between nations meant that ‘survival of the fittest’ applied to everydaylife. Wars were therefore inevitable in the modern world. 88
War, however, was not their only concern. If the Empire did collapse, and if the Emperor had to abdicate, a new state or states might emerge, and the bishops
economic and social progress. They moved among what was termed ‘good society.’ 3 They called for a prominent place in everydaylife for what would normally be called bourgeois morality, even if their version was based on Christian values. Bourgeois agitators were joined by members of the lower clergy of the Catholic Church, who were prominent activists, even leaders, in the movement. But the Christian Socials had a dark side which set them firmly against liberal values of inclusivity, as they proudly expressed the core philosophy of their movement to be antisemitism
secular and spiritual which continued informally that evening at a dinner where most of the dignitaries would again be present. 56
These occasions are important indicators that blanket descriptions of the liberal state being complicit in the ostracising of priests, victimising them and stripping them of their dignity are wide of the mark. Some of the liberal press may have attacked, even mocked, the priests, but this was part of the rough and tumble of everydaylife in the constitutional state. Moreover, the press that did attack the clergy, in the evidence
that have been encountered so far attended or participated at events and activities that were clearly antisemitic, but it should not be concluded that associations on the Catholic wing of society in Vienna were motivated solely by antisemitism, nor that they failed to have genuine and profound ties that bound them together. Yet alongside political and social opinions, alongside political activism, everydaylife, with its celebrations and tragedies, should be recognised as a factor that bound people together.
One such tragedy occurred on Sunday 25 August 1935, and
), EverydayLife in the Middle Ages (Bologna: Liber, 1978), p.
Barber, Bestiary , p. 96.
Bond, Misericords , p. 30.
Stephen Bull, The Civil Wars in
Lancashire (Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing, 2009), p.
Ibid. , p. 185.
Laird, English Misericords , p. 10.
H.S. Corran, The Isle of Man (David and
Religion and life cycles in early modern England examines intersections between religion and all stages of the life course. It considers rites of passage that shaped an individual’s life, such as birth, death, marriage and childbirth. It investigates everyday lived experiences including attending school and church, going to work, praying, writing letters and singing hymns. It sets examples from different contexts alongside each other and traces how different religious confessions were impacted by the religious and political changes that occurred in the two centuries following the Reformation. These approaches demonstrate the existence of multiple and overlapping understandings of the life cycle in early modern England. The collection is structured around three phases: birth, childhood and youth; adulthood and everyday life; and the dying and the dead. Coexisting with the bodily life cycle were experiences which formed the social life cycle such as schooling, joining a profession, embarking on travel abroad, marriage, parenthood and widowhood. Woven through these occurrences, an individual’s religious life cycle can be seen: the occasions when they were welcomed into a particular faith; when they were tempted to convert; when they joined the ministry or a convent. Early modern individuals often reflected on times they personally acknowledged to have transformed their life or events which instigated their spiritual awakening. They did so creatively in diaries, letters, plays, portraits, diagrams, sermons, poetry and hymns. In this interdisciplinary collection, the complex meanings of life-cycle events for early modern people are shown to be shaped by religious belief and experience.