security forces turned security
advisors spend countless hours training aid workers on ‘how to manage
The policy advocated almost routinely by these experts can be summed up as
‘Pay, don’t say’. In the eyes of private security firms,
‘kidnapping can be reduced to a simple business negotiation’ 2 that requires the strictest
confidentiality. According to Alain Juillet, former intelligence director at the
been conceived as a triumph of reason and rationality over emotions. To the extent
it relies on emotions, it carefully directs them through curated narratives deployed
in the realisation of predetermined advocacy objectives ( Fernandes, 2017 : 2). With humanitarian actors increasingly
engaging in specific thematic issues and policy changes, they have privileged
authoritative facts that positions them as experts, enhancing their legitimacy in
the eyes of decision
, Russians and Iranians, and
between rebel and regime groups. All are extremely active online. Pro-regime Russian content
producers have created websites and attacked groups like the White Helmets, calling them
‘terrorists’ and dismissing stories about children killed by chemical attacks as
fake news featuring ‘actors’ ( Solon,
2017 ). In articles from all sides of the campaign, there are links to official-looking
reports and the biographies of experts that seem trustworthy. It can be very difficult to
discern the provenance of information or
Donald , W.
Supuran , C.
( 2020 ), ‘ A Deadly Spillover:
SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak ’, Expert Opinion on
Therapeutic Patents , 30 : 7 ,
481 – 5 , doi: 10.1080/13543776.2020.1760838 .
et al . ( 2021
order the series’.
Rockbrune accumulated an extensive knowledge of their work and activities. The attention of this shipping expert to the structure of the program, and his commitment to its goals, speak volumes about the ambitions and the meaning of the school development education during this period, and about the resources CIDA invested in its quality and sustainability. Still clear in Rockbrune’s memory were the routes of materials, the nature of the products on offer for each age group, the timing of publications’ updates and shipments, and the titles of
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
it costs money and you have to find qualified staff to do that.
SK: Speaking of staff and personnel, one thing I was wondering about is whether you work with professionals – museologists, trained museum staff, museum educators, and so on?
RS: This differs across German Red Cross museums. In our own case, here in Luckenwalde, we worked together with an expert from the regional museum association when we set up the museum. So we got a good deal of advice on how to organize exhibit spaces and so on. The director of the association is now also a member of our
counting practices form an increasingly larger part
of everyone’s workload, it also privileges certain types of expertise over
others. Since the 1990s, there has been a shift from experience-based opinion within
the humanitarian sector towards quantitative experts who practice auditing, deploy
accountancy and conduct numerical-based research ( Barnett, 2013 ; Beerli and Weissman,
The dominance of these quantitative experts has been demonstrated in the work that
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
important issue for contemporary
humanitarian action. This article is thus an historically informed contemplation on
the political function of IHL and what we can expect from it.
The Soldier, the Legal Expert and the Rescuer
Let us begin with the first Geneva Convention, the starting point of contemporary
IHL; it was signed on 22 August 1864 1 and did not even mention the word
‘humanitarian’. In ten articles occupying two pages, its subject (as
agriculture are subject to long waiting times, reducing humanitarian ability to respond to need in a timely fashion. The UN Country team reported 22 examples of delays to the UN Panel of Experts (PoE) in January 2019, with some activities being delayed by over nine months ( UN PoE, 2019 : 364–69).
One interviewee explained that long processing times leave their organisation unable to be flexible and challenges their ability to serve the North Korean people because they need to plan about two and a half years in advance. OFAC licenses can take over a year, according to one
( 2019 ), ‘ Gender Experts and Critical
Friends: Research in Relations of Proximity ’,
European Journal of Politics and Gender ,
2 : 1 ,
131 – 47 , doi: 10.1332/251510819X15471289106068 .
( 2019 ), ‘ Humanitarian Response and Stress
in Kenya: Gendered Problems and Their Implications