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Constructing the Congo
Joanne Yao

book, Europeans envisioned the Congo as a disconnected geography cut off from the normal politics of European society. The Congo basin as an abstract and foreign space allowed European colonizers to construct a conceptual emptiness and populate it with European goods, morals, and institutions. This chapter will first detail this act of conceptual erasure and how explorers, legal experts, and cartographers combined epistemic forces to construct emptiness along the Congo. Then, I will outline the commercial rationality that diplomats intended to impose upon this

in The ideal river
Sam King

(i.e. imperialism). Against this dominant view, important Marxist or Marxian China experts like Zhang, Hung, Starrs and Nolan are far more cautious. Nolan’s powerful 2012 book and the work of Starrs are among the most important. Panitch, Gindin and Ahmad also reject the rising China thesis, if briefly. 27 Notably there is no well-known Marxist China expert writing in English

in Imperialism and the development myth
Kelly-Kate Pease

, their reports to the Human Right Council and to the General Assembly, as well as informal briefings, the special procedures experts can offer invaluable information for identifying both preventive and corrective measures to address situations of concern and enhance practical implementation strategies on the ground. Through their recommendations, the treaty bodies provide states with guidance for national implementation of their obligations. Their work, including general comments on various provisions of the treaties, is also used by courts and other judicial bodies

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Anna Killick

distant from generalised statements and national indicators. I don’t think [the experts] actually probably see things from the grassroots. They commentate on the City’s view and the City’s view is, nine times out of ten, not what somebody who is at the coalface, how they see it. They don’t see it like the price of milk going up or the price of bread or anything like that, they just see it as ‘oh yeah, the average wage in this country is £25,000’. Yes maybe, but in reality in [our city] it’s not. And I think they generalise too much. When Hill district

in Rigged
François Burgat

Several times, then, I really did feel the hostile breathing down my neck of the goons behind-the-scenes of one or other of the regimes in question. This was especially the case when I agreed to testify as an expert witness before foreign courts, in the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, where I was called upon to defend Islamist refugees seeking asylum. There were other troubles of the same kind. These autocrats were sensitive to international public opinion. The stakes of these international legal cases were high enough that they

in Understanding Political Islam
Abstract only
Elisabeth Carter

systems can be mapped to some extent, it is not possible to locate the right-wing extremist parties within this space. Expert judgements A final way in which the political space of a system may be mapped – and the one employed in this chapter – is by using expert judgements. This approach, pioneered by Castles and Mair (1984), asks country experts (drawn from the political science community) to locate the political parties of their respective systems on one or more scales.5 The original questionnaires designed by Castles and Mair simply asked experts to locate the

in The extreme right in Western Europe
Power, accountability and democracy

Does European integration contribute to, or even accelerate, the erosion of intra-party democracy? This book is about improving our understanding of political parties as democratic organisations in the context of multi-level governance. It analyses the impact of European Union (EU) membership on power dynamics, focusing on the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party (PS), and the German Social Democratic Party (SPD). The purpose of this book is to investigate who within the three parties determines EU policies and selects EU specialists, such as the candidates for European parliamentary elections and EU spokespersons.

The book utilises a principal-agent framework to investigate the delegation of power inside the three parties across multiple levels and faces. It draws on over 65 original interviews with EU experts from the three national parties and the Party of European Socialists (PES) and an e-mail questionnaire. This book reveals that European policy has largely remained in the hands of the party leadership. Its findings suggest that the party grassroots are interested in EU affairs, but that interest rarely translates into influence, as information asymmetry between the grassroots and the party leadership makes it very difficult for local activists to scrutinise elected politicians and to come up with their own policy proposals. As regards the selection of EU specialists, such as candidates for the European parliamentary elections, this book highlights that the parties’ processes are highly political, often informal, and in some cases, undemocratic.

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Managing an AI future
James Johnson

processed could increase the vulnerabilities of these networks. During crisis conditions, these vulnerabilities could create new first-mover advantages that increase escalation risks. The ‘explainability’ AI problem-set (see chapter 1 ) could compound these risks. In short, until AI experts unravel some of the unexplainable features of AI, human error and machine error will likely compound one-another, with unpredictable results. The final case study, chapter 8 , examined the notion of human psychology to elucidate how

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
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Opening the AI Pandora’s box
James Johnson

technology and computing, big-data analytics, 6 the internet of things, miniaturization, 3D printing, tools for gene-editing, and robotics and autonomy. Moreover, these achievements occurred significantly faster than experts in the field anticipated. 7 For example, in 2014, the AI expert who designed the world’s best Go-playing (or AlphaGo) program predicted that it would be another ten years before a computer could defeat a human Go champion. 8 Researchers at Google’s DeepMind achieved this technological feat just one

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
James Johnson

. 12 Besides, the technical feasibility of this hypothesis remains highly contested. 13 In the near-term, therefore, because of these technical challenges, nuclear deterrence based on mutually assured destruction is unlikely to be upended by AI-augmented counterforce capabilities. 14 Some experts on China’s nuclear forces argue that it is highly improbable the US would be able to develop the capability to locate all of China’s land-based mobile missiles, as long as China maintains rudimentary deception and dispersal

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare