The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
The EU’s emerging common external border management
After exploring the historical and political background of
co-operation between EU member states on external border issues, this
chapter will identify and analyse the core elements of the
Union’s emerging common external border management, with a
particular focus on the creation of the EU’s new ExternalBordersAgency and the Schengen Borders Code. It will end with an evaluation of
the progress made
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
, the Council approved the creation of mobility partnerships
with third countries, and has implemented pilot schemes in Africa and
Eastern Europe.3 The scheme offers temporary labour market access
in exchange for cooperation on combating irregular migration and
assistance on border security through Frontex, the EU’s externalborderagency. Lastly, political engagement has been coupled with an increased
use in security instruments to fight irregular migration. Since 2005,
Frontex has carried out studies on surveillance systems and produced
risk analysis reports on
-terrorism. Similarly, the EU has developed a
counter-terrorism role for its externalborderagency (Frontex), which since 2013
has operated an external border surveillance system (Eurosur) the development
of which has been justified through linking to counter-terrorism objectives.
28 Council of the European Union, Conclusions Adopted by the Council (Justice
and Home Affairs), Brussels, 20 September 2001, SN3926/6/01 Rev 6.
The European Union’s fight against terrorism
29 Ibid., p. 7, Article 16.
30 Ibid., see pp. 8–9, Articles 24–30.
31 European Council, Declaration on