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Queralt Solé

Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Spain has experienced a cycle of exhumations of the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) and has rediscovered that the largest mass grave of the state is the monument that glorifies the Franco regime: the Valley of the Fallen. Building work in the Sierra de Guadarrama, near Madrid, was begun in 1940 and was not completed until 1958. This article analyses for the first time the regimes wish, from the start of the works, for the construction of the Valley of the Fallen to outdo the monument of El Escorial. At the same time the regime sought to create a new location to sanctify the dictatorship through the vast transfer to its crypts of the remains of the dead of the opposing sides of the war.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Carrie Hamilton

of active resistance. In the next passage (from which the chapter’s epigraph is taken), this return is presented in symbolic terms as breaking the silence imposed on the vanquished by the Franco regime: When an ikurriña was thrown, at the town fiesta, well [laughter] there was an apotheosis. You revolutionised people. You revolutionised them with graffiti . . . You have to live through it . . . suddenly you’ve been silent for forty years . . . these things . . . even get forgotten. It’s as if a son were buried, the prodigal son, and he reappears. You know he’s there

in Women and ETA
Abstract only
Gender, nationalism and memory
Carrie Hamilton

common among women whose partners or male relatives had been killed, imprisoned or exiled. Yet, whether the narrators embraced feminism as a political project or not, their interpretations of their life histories and their roles in the radical nationalist movement were fundamentally shaped by an awareness of the changes in gender roles and relations from their youth during the Franco regime to the time of the interviews thirty or forty years later. They made frequent references to the lack of feminist consciousness in the 1960s and 1970s as compared to the 1990s

in Women and ETA
Carrie Hamilton

similarity between these two forms of Catholic and nationalist motherhood, and of gender relations generally, undermines any simplistic view of Basque families as spaces that were ‘protected’ from the Franco state, or that represented unequivocal resistance to Francoism. In the area of gender relations in particular, middle-class Basque nationalist families to a large extent followed, rather than challenged, dominant ideology. This is not to say that Basque women from nationalist families supported the Franco regime any more than men did, or that they did not feel the

in Women and ETA
Carrie Hamilton

rest of Spain, the sexual politics of the Franco regime. As Frances Lannon writes of the Church’s reforms in the 1960s: [T]he Church was able to be much more radical in politics and questions of social justice, that primarily challenged the state and interest groups in Spanish society, than in matters concerning lay life and sexuality which threatened more nearly its own internal organization and values.11 The preservation of Basque tradition had long been associated with enforcing gender norms. During the early years of the Second Republic, when Church leaders all

in Women and ETA
Abstract only
Arrest and prison
Carrie Hamilton

Madrid, where many female political prisoners were held during the final years of the Franco regime: It was really hard for us . . . The lawyers seldom came to see us. It was obvious that we were girls. And . . . in the beginning I was alone, completely alone in prison, there wasn’t a single Basque prisoner. I was alone for a long time. But later there were people from the PCE, from the Communist Party. And then people from ETA came in, with lighter sentences than us . . . At some point I was with groups of fifteen Basque prisoners. They [the lawyers] came, but very

in Women and ETA
Spanish rhetorics of empire from the 1950s to the 1970s
Andreas Stucki

simplified and manipulative appropriation of lusotropicalism and stressed the harmony of Portugal’s presence in Africa. One of the strategies for adapting to the growing anti-colonial tide was the rebranding of the colonies as overseas provinces (1951). In this renewed discourse, Portugal was again presented as an indivisible, multi-continental nation. 6 The Spanish Franco regime followed the Portuguese

in Rhetorics of empire
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

. García-Paramio, ‘Nurses for a new fatherland: gender and ideology in the health policies of the early Franco regime in Spain (1938–1942)’, Women’s History Magazine, 68 (2012), 33–41 and A.  Peters, ‘Nanna Conti:  the Nazis’ Reichshebammenfuehrerin (1841–1951)’, Women’s History Magazine, 65 (2011), 33–41. 37 A.  Hardy and E.  M. Tansy, ‘Medical enterprise and global response, 1945–2000’, in W.  F. Bynum, A.  Hardy, S.  Jacyna, C.  Lawrence and E.  M. Tansy, The Western Medical Tradition 1800 to 2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 519. 38 M.  Vaughan, Curing Their Ills

in Colonial caring
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti, and Cecilia Sironi

Ispettorato Superiore Generale Servizi Militari, L’organizzazione sanitaria e la salute delle truppe, X. 19 Ispettorato Superiore Generale Servizi Militari, L’organizzazione sanitaria e la salute delle truppe, XI. 20 Ispettorato Superiore Generale Servizi Militari, L’organizzazione sanitaria e la salute delle truppe, XI. 21 M. E. Galiana-Sanchez, J. Bernabeu-Mestre and P. García-Paramio, ‘Nurses for a new fatherland: gender and ideology in the health policies of the early Franco regime in Spain (1938–1942)’, Women’s History Magazine, 68 (2012), 33–41. 22 Grace Baxter

in Colonial caring
Ellora Bennett

. Campos Pérez, ‘Representing the enemy. The iconography of the other in history schoolbooks during the first years of Franco's regime’, Contributions to the History of Concepts , 5 (2009), 140–61, here 141–2. 26 en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/enemy (accessed 27 March 2019). 27

in Early medieval militarisation