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Authoritarianism, agency, and everyday life
Author: Keith Rathbone

Wartime physical culture in France encompasses two complementary phenomena: a massive State investment in national regeneration, best exemplified by the creation of a sports bureaucracy (the Commissariat général à l'éducation générale et aux sports) and a concomitant rise in participation among ordinary people who during the wartime joined local sporting associations in greater numbers than ever before. Why did popular participation in sports explode during the wartime and how much did the Government’s programmes succeed in using the popularity of athletics to promote their conservative ideology?

This book sets out to explore the interplay between these two circumstances. The first two chapters examine the French State’s role in the development of sports during the interwar period through to the Occupation. The second half of the book centres on popular participation in sports. Chapter 3 deals with physical education in State schools while chapter 4 investigates how the largest professional clubs survived the Vichy State’s attempt to deprofessionalise sports. Chapter 5 looks at a dozen local sporting associations to better understand how ordinary French people used their clubs to overcome the hardships imposed by the Germans and the Vichy Government. Each of these chapters emphasises the power of everyday French men and women to frustrate the Government’s physical cultural agenda. A final chapter provides a finale to the book, examining what happened to sports after the Liberation of France, and how sporting organisations reshaped their institutional memory of the wartime through the lens of collaboration and resistance.

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Eminence grise for African affairs
Jean-Pierre Bat

components of scandal – power, secrets, money, police activities – are brought together. In this context, Africa – the ‘domaine réservé’ (preserve) of the President – appears as a film negative for the fairly disreputable methods used by Foccart behind the scenes (Péan 1990). Endeavouring to outline the boundaries of Foccart’s power and influence over African affairs comes down to tracing the thread of a life built on Gaullist militancy. The Gaullist baron and the RPF in Africa (1940–1958) Foccart’s actual political career began with the French Resistance: under the name

in Francophone Africa at fifty
Past crimes, present memories
Author: Claire Gorrara

French crime fiction and the Second World War explores France's preoccupation with memories of the Second World War through an examination of crime fiction, one of popular culture's most enduring literary forms. The study analyses representations of the war years in a selection of French crime novels from the late 1940s to the 2000s. All the crime novels discussed grapple with the challenges of what it means for generations past and present to live in the shadow of the war: from memories of French resistance and collaboration to Jewish persecution and the legacies of the concentration camps. The book argues that crime fiction offers novel ways for charting the two-way traffic between official discourses and popular reconstructions of such a contested conflict in French cultural memory.

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Trajectories and legacies
Scott Soo

This concluding chapter reiterates that the ‘routes’ to the Spanish republican exile in France are to be found in the refugees’ reactions to the interactive, spatial, and temporal dynamics of daily life. In the course of the discussion, the chapter draws attention to a number of issues. A symbiotic approach to history and memory is useful for understanding just how deeply refugees were affected by their arrival and subsequent relations in France. Secondly, the relationship between asylum and the economy is highlighted along with the ways in which the Spanish republicans sought to maintain a degree of agency over the type, place and conditions of work.

This chapter closes with the issue of memory. More particularly, it questions the prominence of Gaullist and (French) resistance discourses at the Liberation by drawing attention to the array of French-Spanish republican commemorative events which occurred at the local level. It then outlines the legacy of the Spanish republicans’ remembrance practices in contemporary France and the accompanying transnational dynamic.

in The routes to exile
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The birth and growth of major religions

What do we really know of the origins and first spread of major monotheistic religions, once we strip away the myths and later traditions that developed? Creating God uses modern critical historical scholarship alongside archaeology to describe the times and places which saw the emergence of Mormonism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. What was the social, economic and political world in which they began, and the framework of other contemporary religious movements in which they could flourish? What was their historical background and what was their geographical setting? Written from a secular viewpoint, the author reveals where a scholarly approach to the history of religions may diverge from the assumptions of faith, and shows the value of comparing different movements and different histories in one account. Throughout history, many individuals have believed that they were in direct contact with a divine source, receiving direction to spread a religious message. A few persuaded others and developed a following, and a small minority of such movements grew into full religions. In time, these movements developed, augmented, selected and invented their own narratives of foundation: stories about the founders’ lives and the early stages in which their religious group emerged. Modern critical scholarship helps us understand something of how a successful religion could emerge, thrive and begin the journey to become a world faith. This book presents a narrative to interest, challenge and intrigue readers interested in the beginnings of some of the most powerful ideas that have influenced human history.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Keith Rathbone

emphasise the pivotal role that athletes played in the French resistance movement, the Almanach highlighted successful resistance inside sporting associations. They transformed French stadiums, pools, and club houses into locations for clandestine meetings. Secret information and operational plans changed hands in the security of the locker room. 2 Of course, in 1944 the full extent of the French Resistance was unknown and the Almanach 's editors provided little evidence to back up

in Sport and physical culture in Occupied France
Passing performances in captivity
Juliette Pattinson

June 1944 following operation CADILLAC, the first daylight drop of arms, kept to her story that she was a local shorthand typist who had become involved with members of the regional Resistance group. Because Baseden was caught having a meal with her fellow Resistance comrades following the operation, rather than being captured at her wireless set, she was able to pass as a local Frenchwoman. The Gestapo were unaware that she was a wireless operator for some time: ‘I implied that I was just another French Resistance worker with a group of people and I was helping them

in Behind Enemy Lines
Juliette Pattinson

he had just finished writing a biography of Violette Szabo. This has yet to be published. 21 J. Gleeson, They Feared No Evil: The Stories of the Gallant and Courageous Women Agents of Britain’s Secret Armies, 1939–45 (London: Hale, 1976); L. Jones, A Quiet Courage: Women Agents in the French Resistance (London: Corgi Books, 1990); B. Escott, Mission Improbable: A Salute to the RAF Women of SOE in Wartime France (Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Limited, 1991); R. Kramer, Flames in the Field: The Story of Four SOE Agents in Occupied France (London: Penguin

in Behind Enemy Lines
Challenging the epic in French crime fiction of the 1940s and 1950s
Claire Gorrara

 Lagrou, The Legacy of Nazi Occupation: Patriotic Memory and National • 36 • Resisters and the resistance   3    4     5     6    7     8     9   10   11   12   Recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965 (Cambridge: Cambridge University  Press, 2000), p. 2.  The  FrenchResistance,  as  a  war  story  of  victory  against  overwhelming  odds, has come to stand as an enduring legacy of the Second World War  for France. The continuing power of such a war story was illustrated in June  2010 during the celebrations to mark the seventieth anniversary of Charles  de

in French crime fiction and the Second World War