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Transnational resistance in Europe, 1936–48
Editors: Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

This work demonstrates that resistance to occupation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy during the Second World War has to be seen through a transnational, not a national, lens. It explores how people often resisted outside their country of origin because they were migrants, refugees or exiles who were already on the move. It traces their trajectories and encounters with other resisters and explores their experiences, including changes of beliefs, practices and identities. The book is a powerful, subtle and thought-provoking alternative to works on the Second World War that focus on single countries or on grand strategy. It is a ‘bottom up’ story of extraordinary individuals and groups who resisted oppression from Spain to the Soviet Union and the Balkans. It challenges the standard chronology of the war, beginning with the formation of the International Brigades in Spain and following through to the onset of the Cold War and the foundation of the state of Israel. This is a collective project by a team of international historians led by Robert Gildea, author of Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance (Faber & Faber, 2015). These have explored archives across Europe, the USA, Russia and Israel in order to unearth scores of fascinating individual stories which are woven together into themed chapters and a powerful new interpretation. The book is aimed at undergraduates and graduates working on twentieth-century Europe and the Second World War or interested in the possibilities of transnational history.

Transnational catalyst of Europe’s anti-Nazi resistance
Yaacov Falkov and Mercedes Yusta-Rodrigo

was echoed by his compatriot and former Romanian comrade-in-arms Charlotte (Sarolta) Gruia, who testified that ‘Those who had fought in Spain, in the International Brigades, were the first of us to be involved in the French Resistance.’8 A transnational founding trio in France In France, early resistance activity was either sporadic protest or demonstrations or small groups seeking to release POWs, procure military intelligence or spread propaganda. Armed resistance began in the summer of 1941, shortly after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, and was the work

in Fighters across frontiers
Robert Gildea and Olga Manojlović Pintar

d’Aran, hoping to raise a revolt in Spain.7 After these attacks from abroad failed, the PCE under Santiago Carrillo decided to encourage guerrilla activity inside Spain. Many experienced fighters, veterans of the French resistance and members of the Communist Party, were sent to reinforce existing groups and to stir up the civilian population, especially peasants. The PCE leadership hoped to see an insurrection, which they envisioned along the lines of the last stages of the war in France.8 However, Carrillo and the PCE leadership were suspicious of transnational

in Fighters across frontiers
Kathryn Nash

After the fall of France to Germany, the French resistance, led by General Charles de Gaulle, depended on French colonial territories for manpower, resources, and ultimately legitimacy. Free French Africa spanned Chad, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Oubangui-Chari. 24 Brazzaville became the capital of legitimate France for the resistance, and it was from this African city that the French resistance was able to continue their campaign to liberate the French motherland and maintain their credibility with other Allied Powers. 25 When France was eventually

in African peace
Abstract only
Robert Gildea and Ismee Tames

communists to the French resistance was now recognised, as was that of communist partisans in Yugoslavia.21 There were renewed attempts by historians after 1968 to demonstrate that resistance had been a European phenomenon. Jacques Delperrie de Bayac and Verle B. Johnston published works on the International Brigades.22 Henri Michel of the French Comité d’Histoire de la Deuxième GILDEA 9781526151247 PRINT.indd 8 05/10/2020 08:14 introduction 9 Guerre Mondiale, published La guerre de l’ombre: la résistance en Europe in 1970.23 A symposium on ‘Resistance in Europe

in Fighters across frontiers
Abstract only
Extradition, political offence exception and the French sanctuary
Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

solution, transforming them into cheap foreign workers. 27 The work companies made of refugees and the internment camps played a central part in Vichy's attempt to control and expel political suspects. They were equally crucial though in the development of the French resistance, with numerous Spanish, Basque and Catalan refugees escaping and joining the ranks of the Free French Forces of General De Gaulle or the various segments of the French internal resistance, notably across the Pyrénées-Orientales region

in Counter-terror by proxy
Robert Gildea

dissolved. Between November 1941 and February 1942, those considered the most dangerous of the remaining internees were sent to the prison of Castres. They included Italians like Vaia, Germans such as Rudolph Leonhard and a group of Yugoslavs headed by Ilić.41 Castres would become another crucible of resistance bringing together experienced resisters who would become influencial figures in the French Resistance. On 16 September 1943, following the Italian surrender to the Allies, a mass escape from Castres was orchestrated by Ilić and Nonweiller. They were in contact with

in Fighters across frontiers
Abstract only
Ismee Tames and Robert Gildea

/10/2020 08:14 conclusion 251 Jews, we have argued, were often at the heart of transnational resistance. They adapted to many different forms of resistance, national, communist or Zionist. Lew Goldenberg, born in Paris to parents who fled Russia after the failed 1905 revolution, was already part of the French legal establishment under the name Leo Hamon when the French Resistance called him. By contrast Albert Cohen, who was born in Argentina and served in the French Levant army in 1940, did not discover Zionist resistance until he was deprived of his non

in Fighters across frontiers
Franziska Zaugg and Yaacov Falkov

behind German lines, but it was far from being simply a national movement. The PCI commanded a transnational struggle which involved both veterans of the International Brigades and Yugoslav POWs who were able to escape from their camps and prisons to join the fight. Italian members of the International Brigades had for some time been fighting alongside the French Resistance, but now started to move back illegally to Italy, often on the orders of the PCI. On 8 September 1943 the communist leader Antonio Roasio instructed Francesco Scotti, a veteran of the International

in Fighters across frontiers
Warsaw, Paris, Slovakia
Laurent Douzou, Yaacov Falkov, and Vít Smetana

as movements of national resistance and liberation: the triumph of the French Resistance and the Free French, the Polish national uprising and the Slovak national uprising. These narratives were required to overcome national traumas of defeat, occupation, partition and collaboration. By rising up the nations redeemed themselves and threw off the shame and guilt of their recent pasts. These national myths, defensible though they were in political terms, conceal the fact that the uprisings were far from purely national: they were international, multinational and

in Fighters across frontiers