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Relationships and issues, 1941–45
Andrew Williams

Frenchman had felt able to face up to Hitler in the 1930s (any more than most of the British): ‘If rulers and ruled had possessed the courage to say merde to Hitler before 1939 the story would have had a very different ending.’5 Only General Charles de Gaulle so dared in 1940 and, although hardly anyone noticed at the time (his BBC broadcast of June 1940 was not even recorded), he went on to symbolise France’s revival in exile. The relationship of the main symbol of French resistance with the British and Americans was famously difficult, both before and after the

in Failed imagination?
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

with de Gaulle’s Free French resistance movement. He became a Senator in the Fourth Republic, and, when de Gaulle accepted the call to introduce a new constitution in 1958, Debré played a leading role in drafting that constitution. After serving as Prime Minister, he later became Foreign Minister and Defence Minister. In 1981 he was a candidate for the presidency, but received only about 1 per cent of the vote on the first

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood

Italian political elites. [See also: Tangentopoli] maquis A name given to sections of the French resistance in the Second World War, usually those located in rural areas especially of southern France. The word derives from the scrubby undergrowth found especially in the mountainous areas where they had their bases. [See also: Resistance groups] Marshall Plan

in The politics today companion to West European Politics